Disinfecting Contaminated Surfaces
Disinfect hard surfaces -- floors, walls and counters -- that may have been contaminated by flood waters. Use this same solution for dishes, glass, and plasticware.
Remove loose dirt and debris from surfaces; Wash down area with a solution of 3/4 cup Clorox liquid bleach per gallon of water; Keep wet for 2 minutes and rinse. Clorox household liquid bleach is registered with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as a disinfectant that kills common bacteria.
In the Bathroom
To reduce odors that may result from sewage backup: Flush toilet; pour 1 cup Clorox liquid bleach into the the bowl; Brush entire bowl and let solution stand for 10 minutes; flush again Bleach eliminates odors and kills germs.
Washable, colorfast clothing and linens should be washed as soon as possible to prevent mold and mildew and to disinfect laundry.
Excessive mold and mildew growth is common after flooding. To remove mold and mildew from washable and colorfast exterior surfaces that may have been saturated by flood waters, follow these directions:
Outdoor Cleaning instructions
Remove loose dirt and debris from affected surface with a power hose; Keep surface wet with a solution of 3/4 cup Clorox liquid bleach per gallon of water for 5-15 minutes; Rinse thoroughly with power hose to remove any residue, Children's toys, play equipment and outdoor furniture in contact with flood waters also should be disinfected before use.
Be sure to dispose of any food items that may have come in contact with flood waters, even canned goods. Household liquid bleach is a safe, inexpensive and effective product that can be used in a variety of areas around the home to clean up after flood contamination. And used according to label directions, Clorox liquid bleach is safe for the environment, breaking down primarily into salt and water. For more information contact Sandy Sullivan at 510-271-7732, or Melanie Miller at 202-638-1200, both for Clorox. You may also write to the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), P.O. Box 70274, Washington, DC 20024 and request a copy of "Your Family Disaster Plan" and "Your Family Disaster Supplies Kit." Your local American Red Cross chapter also has disaster preparedness information available. 12/6/95
Helping Children Cope with Disaster Earthquakes...Tornadoes...Fires...Floods...Hurricanes...Hazardous Materials Spills
Disaster may strike quickly and without warning. These events can be frightening for adults, but they are traumatic for children if they don't know what to do.
During a disaster, your family may have to leave your home and daily routine. Children may become anxious, confused or frightened. As an adult, you'll need to cope with the disaster in a way that will help children avoid developing a permanent sense of loss. It is important to give children guidance that will help them reduce their fears.
The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the American Red Cross have prepared this brochure to help you help your children cope. Ultimately, you should decide what's best for your children, but consider using these suggestions as guidelines.
Children and Their Response to Disaster
Children depend on daily routines: They wake up, eat breakfast, go to school, play with friends. When emergencies or disasters interrupt this routine, children may become anxious.
In a disaster, they'll look to you and other adults for help. How you react to an emergency gives them clues on how to act. If you react with alarm, a child may become more scared. They see our fear as proof that the danger is real. If you seem overcome with a sense of loss, a child may feel their losses more strongly. Children's fears also may stem from their imagination, and you should take these feelings seriously. A child who feels afraid is afraid. Your words and actions can provide reassurance. When talking with your child, be sure to present a realistic picture that is both honest and manageable. Feeling or fear are healthy and natural for adults and children. But as an adult, you need to keep control of the situation. When you're sure that danger has passed, concentrate on your child's emotional needs by asking the child what's uppermost in his or her mind. Having children participate in the family's recovery activities will help them feel that their life will return to "normal." Your response during this time may have a lasting impact. Be aware that after a disaster, children are most afraid that the event will happen again. Someone will be injured or killed. They will be separated from the family. They will be left alone.
Advice to Parents: Prepare for Disaster
You can create a Family Disaster Plan by taking four simple steps. First, learn what hazards exist in your community and how to prepare for each. Then meet with your family to discuss what you would do, as a group, in each situation. Next, take steps to prepare your family for disaster such as: posting emergency phone numbers, selecting an out-of-state family contact, assembling disaster supplies kits for each member of your household and installing smoke detectors on each level of your home. Finally, practice your Family Disaster Plan so that everyone will remember what to do when a disaster does occur.
Develop and practice a Family Disaster Plan. Contact your local emergency management or civil defense office, or your local Red Cross chapter for materials that describe how your family can create a disaster plan. Everyone in the household, including children, should play a part in the family's response and recovery efforts. Teach your child how to recognize danger signals. Make sure your child knows what smoke detectors, fire alarms and local community warning systems (horns, sirens) sound like. Explain how to call for help. Teach your child how and when to call for help. Check the telephone directory for local emergency phone numbers and post these phone numbers by all telephones. If you live in a 9-1-1-service area, tell your child to call 9-1-1.
Help your child memorize important family information. Children should memorize their family name, address and phone number. They should also know where to meet in case of an emergency. Some children may not be old enough to memorize the information. They could carry a small index card that lists emergency information to give to an adult or babysitter.
AFTER THE DISASTER: TIME FOR RECOVERY
Immediately after the disaster, try to reduce your child's fear and anxiety. Keep the family together. While you look for housing and assistance, you may want to leave your children with relatives or friends. Instead, keep the family together as much as possible and make children a part of what you are doing to get the family back on its feet. Children get anxious, and they'll worry that their parents won't return. Calmly and firmly explain the situation. As best as you can, tell children what you know about the disaster. Explain what will happen next. For example, say, "Tonight, we will all stay together in the shelter." Get down to the child's eye level and talk to them. Encourage children to talk. Let children talk about the disaster and ask questions as much as they want. Encourage children to describe what they're feeling. Listen to what they say. If possible, include the entire family in the discussion. Include children in recovery activities. Give children chores that are their responsibility. This will help children feel they are part of the recovery. Having a task will help them understand that everything will be all right. You can help children cope by understanding what causes their anxieties and fears. Reassure them with firmness and love. Your children will realize that life will eventually return to normal. If a child does not respond to the above suggestions, seek help from a mental health specialist or a member of the clergy.
The Federal Emergency Management Agency's Community and Family Preparedness Program developed this brochure in cooperation with the American Red Cross' Community Disaster Education Program. Both are national efforts to help people prepare for disasters of all types. For more information on how to prepare for and respond to disaster, contact your local or State office of emergency management and your local Red Cross chapter. Ask for "Your Family Disaster Plan. Or, write to: FEMA, P.O. Box 70274, Washington, D.C. 20024.
DISASTER PREPAREDNESS FOR PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES
Being prepared for emergencies can reduce the fear, panic, and inconvenience that surrounds a disaster. Check for hazards in the home. During and right after a disaster, ordinary items in the home can cause injury or damage. Anything that can move, fall, break or cause fire is a home hazard. Check for items such as bookcases, hanging pictures, or overhead lights that could fall in an earthquake or a flood and block an escape path. Be ready to evacuate. Have a plan for getting out of your home or building (ask your family or friends for assistance, if necessary). Also, plan two evacuation routes because some roads may be closed or blocked in a disaster. Have disaster supplies on hand. Flashlight with extra batteries. Portable, battery-operated radio and extra batteries. First aid kit and manual. Emergency food and water. Nonelectric can opener.
Essential medicines Cash and credit cards Sturdy shoes. Maintain a list of the following important items and store it with the emergency supplies. Give a copy to another family member and a friend or neighbor. Special equipment and supplies, e.g.,hearing aid batteries Current prescriptions names and dosages Names, addresses, and telephone numbers of doctors and pharmacist Detailed information about the specifications of your medication regime Create a self-help network of relatives, friends or co-workers to assist in an emergency. If you think you may need assistance in a disaster, discuss your disability with relatives, friends, and co-workers and ask for their help. For example, if you need help moving or require special arrangements to receive emergency messages, make a plan with friends. Make sure they know where you keep emergency supplies. Give a key to a neighbor or friend who may be able to assist you in a disaster.
Contact your local emergency information management office now. Many local emergency management offices maintain registers of people with disabilities so they can be located and assisted quickly in a disaster.
Wearing medical alert tags or bracelets to identify your disability may help in case of an emergency. Know the location and availability of more than one facility if you are dependent on a dialysis machine or other life-sustaining equipment or treatment. If you have a severe speech, language, or hearing disability:
When you dial 9-1-1, tap space bar to indicate TDD call. Store a writing pad and pencils to communicate with others. Keep a flashlight handy to signal whereabouts to other people and for illumination to aid in communication. Remind friends that you cannot completely hear warnings or emergency instructions. Ask them to be your source of emergency information as it comes over their radio. If you have a hearing ear dog, be aware that the dog may become confused or disoriented in an emergency. Store extra food, water and supplies for your dog.
Planning for Evacuation People with disabilities have the same choices as other community residents about whether to evacate their homes and where to go when an emergency threatens. Listen to the advice of local officials. Decide whether it is better to leave the area, stay with a friend or go to a public shelter. Each of these decisions requires planning and preperation. If you need a wheelchair: Show friends how to operate your wheelchair so they can move you if necessary. Make sure your friends know the size of your wheelchair in case it has to be transported.
SHEET: FLOODS AND FLASH FLOODS
Mitigation pays. It includes any activities that prevent an emergency, reduce the chance of an emergency happening, or lessen the damaging effects of unavoidable emergencies. Investing in mitigation steps now such as constructing barriers such as levees and purchasing flood insurance will help reduce the amount of structural damage to your home and financial loss from building and crop damage should a flood or flash flood occur.
Find out if you live in a flood-prone area from your local emergency management office or Red Cross chapter. Ask whether your property is above or below the flood stage water level and learn about the history of flooding for your region. Learn flood warning signs and your community alert signals.
Request information on preparing for floods and flash floods. If you live in a frequently flooded area, stockpile emergency building materials. These include plywood, plastic sheeting, lumber nails, hammer and saw, pry bar, shovels, and sandbags. Have check valves installed in building sewer traps to prevent flood waters from backing up in sewer drains. Finally, use large corks or stoppers to plug showers, tubs, or basins. Plan and practice an evacuation route. Contact the local emergency management office or local American Red Cross chapter for a copy of the community flood evacuation plan.
This plan should include information on the safest routes to shelters. Individuals living in flash flood areas should have several alternative routes. Have disaster supplies on hand. Flashlights and extra batteries, Portable, battery-operated radio and extra batteries, First aid kit and manual, Emergency food and water nonelectric can opener essential medicines, Cash and credit cards, and Sturdy shoes
Develop an emergency communication plan. In case family members are separated from one another during floods or flash floods (a real possibility during the day when adults are at work and children are at school), plan to get back together. Ask an out-of-state relative or friend to serve as the "family contact." After a disaster, it's often easier to call long distance. Make sure everyone in the family knows the name, address, and phone number of the contact person. Make sure that all family members know how to respond after a flood or flash flood. Teach all family members how and when to turn off gas, electricity, and water. Teach children how and when to call 9-1-1, police, fire department, and which radio station to tune to for emergency information. Learn about the National Flood Insurance Program.Ask your insurance agent about flood insurance. Homeowner's policies do not cover flood damage.
DURING A FLOOD WATCH
Listen to a batter-operated radio for the latest storm information. Fill bathtubs, sinks, and jugs with clean water in case water becomes contaminated. Bring outdoor belongings, such as patio furniture, indoors. Move valuable household possessions to the upper floors or to safe ground if time permits. If local authorities instruct you to do so, turn off all utilities at the main switch and close the main gas valve. Be prepared to evacuate.
DURING A FLOOD
If Indoors: Turn on battery-operated radio or television to get the latest emergency information. Get your preassembled emergency supplies. If told to leave, do so immediately. If Outdoors: Climb to high ground and stay there. Avoid walking through any floodwaters. If it is moving swiftly, even water 6inches deep can sweep you off your feet. If in A Car: If you come to a flooded area, turn around and go another way. If your car stalls, abandon it immediately and climb to higher ground. Many deaths have resulted from attempts to move stalled vehicles.
DURING AN EVACUATION
If advised to evacuate, do so immediately. Evacuation is much simpler and safer before flood waters become too deep for ordinary vehicles to drive through. Listen to a batter-operated radio for evacuation instructions. Follow recommended evacuation routes. Shortcuts may be blocked. Leave early enough to avoid being marooned by flooded roads.
Flood dangers do not end when the water begins to recede. Listen to a radio or television and don't return home until authorities indicate that doing it so is safe. Remember to help your neighbors who may require special assistance--infants, elderly people, and people with disabilities.
Inspect foundations for cracks or other damage. Stay out of buildings if flood waters remain around the building. When entering buildings, use extreme caution. Wear sturdy shoes and use battery-powered lanterns or flashlights when examining buildings. Examine walls, floors, doors, and windows to make sure that the building is not in danger of collapsing. Watch out for animals, especially poisonous snakes, that may have come into your home with the flood waters. Use a stick to poke through debris. Watch for loose plaster and ceilings that could fall. Take pictures of the damage--both to the house and its contents for insurance claims. Look for fire hazards. Broken or leaking gas lines flooded electrical circuits submerged furnaces or electrical appliances flammable or explosive materials coming from upstream throw away food--including canned goods--that has come in contact with flood waters. Pump out flooded basements gradually (about one-third of the water per day) to avoid structural damage. Service damaged septic tanks, cesspools, pits, and leaching systems as soon as possible. Damaged sewage systems are health hazards.
INSPECTING UTILITIES IN A DAMAGED HOME
Check for gas leaks--If you smell gas or hear blowing or hissing noise, open a window and quickly leave the building. Turn off the gas at the outside main valve if you can and call the gas company from a neighbor's home. If you turn off the gas for any reason, it must be turned back on by a professional. Look for electrical system damage--If you see sparks or broken or frayed wires, or if you smell hot insulation, turn off the electricity at the main fuse box or circuit breaker. If you have to step in water to get to the fuse box or circuit breaker, call an electrician for advice. Check for sewage and water lines damage--If you suspect sewage lines are damaged avoid using the toilets and call a plumber. If water pipes are damaged, contact the water company and avoid the water from the tap. You can obtain safe water by melting ice cubes.
Earthquakes strike suddenly, violently and without warning. Identifying potential hazards ahead of time and advance planning can reduce the dangers of serious injury or loss of life from an earthquake.
Check for hazards in the home.
Fasten shelves securely to walls.
Place large or heavy objects on lower shelves.
Store breakable items such as bottled foods, glass, and china in low, closed cabinets with latches.
Hang heavy items such as pictures and mirrors away from beds, couches, and anywhere people sit.
Brace overhead light fixtures.
Repair defective electrical wiring and leaky gas connections. These are potential fire risks.
Secure a water heater by strapping it to the wall studs and bolting it to the floor.
Repair any deep cracks in ceilings or foundations. Get expert advice if there are signs of structural defects. Store weed killers, pesticides, and flammable products securely in closed cabinets with latches and on bottom shelves.
Identify safe places in each room.
Under sturdy furniture such as a heavy desk or table. Against an inside wall. Away from where glass could shatter around windows, mirrors, pictures, or where heavy bookcases or other heavy furniture could fall over.
Locate safe places outdoors.
In the open, away from buildings, trees, telephone and electrical lines, overpasses, or elevated expressways. Make sure all family members know how to respond after an earthquake. Teach all family members how and when to turn off gas, electricity, and water. Teach children how and when to call 9-1-1, police, or fire department and which radio station to tune to for emergency information. Contact your local emergency management office or American Red Cross chapter for more information on earthquakes. Have disaster supplies on hand. Flashlight and extra batteries
Portable battery-operated radio and extra batteries, First aid kit and manual, Emergency food and water, Nonelectric can opener, Essential medicines, Cash and credit cards, Sturdy shoes
Develop an emergency communication plan. In case family members are separated from one another during an earthquake (a real possibility during the day when adults are at work and children are at school), develop a plan for reuniting after the disaster. Ask an out-of-state relative or friend to serve as the "family contact." After a disaster, it's often easier to call long distance. Make sure everyone in the family knows the name, address, and phone number of the contact person.
If indoors: Take cover under a piece of heavy furniture or against an inside wall and hold on.
Stay inside. The most dangerous thing to do during the shaking of an earthquake is to try to leave the building because objects can fall on you.
If outdoors: Move into the open, away from buildings, street lights, and utility wires.
Once in the open, stay there until the shaking stops.
If in a moving vehicle:Stop quickly and stay in the vehicle. Move to a clear area away from buildings, trees, overpasses, or utility wires. Once the shaking has stopped, proceed with caution. Avoid bridges or ramps that might have been damaged by the quake.
Pets after an Earthquake
The behavior of pets may change dramatically after an earthquake. Normally quiet and friendly cats and dogs may become aggressive or defensive. Watch animals closely. Leash dogs and place them in a fenced yard. Pets may not be allowed into shelters for health and space reasons. Prepare an emergency pen for pets in the home that includes a 3-day supply of dry food and a large container of water.
Be prepared for aftershocks. Although smaller than the main shock, aftershocks cause additional damage and maybring weakened structures down. Aftershocks can occur in the first hours, days, weeks, or even months after the quake. Help injured or trapped persons. Give first aid where appropriate. Do not move seriously injured persons unless they are in immediate danger of further injury. Call for help. Listen to a battery-operated radio or television for the latest emergency information. Remember to help your neighbors who may require special assistance infants, the elderly, and people with disabilities. Stay out of damaged buildings. Return home only when authorities say it is safe. Use the telephone only for emergency calls. Clean up spilled medicines, bleaches or gasoline or other flammable liquids immediately. Leave the area if you smell gas or fumes from other chemicals. Open closet and cupboard doors cautiously. Inspect the entire length of chimneys carefully for damage. Unnoticed damage could lead to a fire.
INSPECTING UTILITIES IN A DAMAGED HOME
Check for gas leaks--If you smell gas or hear blowing or hissing noise, open a window and quickly leave the building. Turn off the gas at the outside main valve if you can and call the gas company from a neighbor's home. If you turn off the gas for any reason, it must be turned back on by a professional. Look for electrical system damage--If you see sparks or broken or frayed wires, or if you smell hot insulation, turn off the electricity at the main fuse box or circuit breaker. If you have to step in water to get to the fuse box or circuit breaker, call an electrician first for advice. Check for sewage and water lines damage--If you suspect sewage lines are damaged, avoid using the toilets and call a plumber. If water pipes are damaged, contact the water company and avoid using water from the tap. You can obtain safe water by melting ice cubes.
Mitigation includes any activities that prevent an emergency, reduce the chance of an emergency happening, or lessen the damaging effects of unavoidable emergencies. Investing in preventive mitigation steps now such as repairing deep plaster cracks in ceilings and foundations, anchoring overhead lighting fixtures to the ceiling and following local seismic building standards, will help reduce the impact of earthquakes in the future. For more information on mitigation, contact your local emergency management office.
FACT SHEET: HOUSE AND BUILDING FIRES
A fire can engulf a structure in a matter of minutes. Understanding the basic characteristics of fire and learning the proper safety practices can be the key to surviving a house or building fire.
Install smoke detectors. Check them once a month and change the batteries at least once a year. Develop and practice an escape plan. Make sure all family members know what to do in a fire. Draw a floor plan with at least two ways of escaping every room. Choose a safe meeting place outside the house. Practice alerting other household members. It is a good idea to keep a bell and a flashlight in each bedroom for this purpose. Practice evacuating the building blindfolded. In a real fire situation, the amount of smoke generated by a fire will most likely make it impossible to see. Practice staying low to the ground when escaping. Feel all doors before opening them. If the door is hot, get out another way. Learn to stop, drop to the ground, and roll if clothes catch fire. Post emergency numbers near telephones. However, be aware that if a fire threatens your home, you should not place the call to your emergency services from inside the home. It is better to get out first and place the call from somewhere else. Purchase collapsible ladders at hardware stores and practice using them.
Install A-B-C type fire extinguishers in the home and teach family members how to use them. Do not store combustible materials in closed areas or near a heat source.
Keep the stove area clean and clear of combustibles such as bags, boxes, and other appliances. If a fire starts, put a lid over the burning pan or use a fire extinguisher. Be careful. Moving the pan can cause the fire to spread. Never pour water on grease fires.
Check electrical wiring. Replace wiring if frayed or cracked. Make sure wiring is not under rugs, over nails, or in high traffic areas. Do not overload outlets or extension cords. Outlets should have cover plates and no exposed wiring. Only purchase appliances and electrical devices that have a label indicating that they have been inspected by a testing laboratory such as Underwriter's Laboratories (UL) or Factory Mutual (FM). Contact your local fire department or the local American Red Cross chapter for more information on fire safety.
Get out as quickly and as safely as possible. Use the stairs to escape. When evacuating, stay low to the ground. If possible, cover mouth with a cloth to avoid inhaling smoke and gases. Close doors in each room after escaping to delay the spread of the fire. If in a room with a closed door. If smoke is pouring in around the bottom of the door or it feels hot, keep the door closed. Open a window to escape or for fresh air while awaiting rescue. If there is no smoke at the bottom or top and the door is not hot, then open the door slowly. If there is too much smoke or fire in the hall, slam the door shut. Call the fire department from a location outside the house.
Give first aid where appropriate. Seriously injured or burned victims should be transported to professional medical help immediately. Stay out of damage buildings. Return home only when local fire authorities say it is safe. Look for structural damage. Discard food that has been exposed to heat, smoke, or soot. Contact insurance agent. Don't discard damaged goods until after an inventory has been taken. Save receipts for money relating to fire loss.
Heating devices such as portable heaters, wood stoves, and fireplaces demand safe operation. Use portable heaters in well-ventilated rooms only. Refuel kerosene heaters outdoors only. Have chimneys and wood stoves cleaned annually. Buy only approved heaters and follow the manufacturers' directions.
Smoke detectors more than double the chance of surviving a fire. Smoke detectors sense abnormal amounts of smoke or invisible combustion gases in the air. They can detect both smoldering and burning fires. At least one smoke detector should be installed on every level of a structure. Test the smoke detectors each month and replace the batteries at least once a year. Purchase smoke detectors labeled by the Underwriter's Laboratories (UL) or Factory Mutual (FM).
The U.S. Fire Administration has more information on fire safety and firefighting.
FEMA - FACT SHEET: HAZARDOUS MATERIALS IN THE HOME
FACT SHEET: HAZARDOUS MATERIALS IN THE HOME
Nearly every household uses products containing hazardous materials. Although the risk of a chemical accident is slight, knowing how to handle these products and how to react during an emergency can reduce the risk of injury.
Contact authorities on hazardous household materials, such as the Environmental Protection Agency, for information about potentially dangerous household products and their antidotes.
Ask about the advisability of maintaining antidotes in your home for:
Cleaners and germicides, Deodorizers, Detergents, Drain and bowl cleaners, Gases, Home medications, Laundry bleaches, Liquid fuels, Paint removers and thinners, Store household chemicals according to the instructions on the label.
Read instructions on how to dispose of chemicals properly. Small amounts of the following products can be safely poured down the drain with plenty of water:
Antifreeze, Bathroom and glass cleaner, Bleach, Drain cleaner, Fertilizer
Household disinfectant, Laundry and dishwashing detergent, Rubbing alcohol
Rug and upholstery cleaner, Toilet bowl cleaner, Small amounts of the following products should be disposed of by wrapping the container in newspaper and plastic and placing it in the trash:
Brake fluid, Car wax or polish, Dish and laundry soap, Drain cleaner, Fertilizer, Furniture and floor polish, Insect repellent, Nail polish, Oven cleaner, Paint thinner and strippers, Pesticides, Powder cleansers, Toilet bowl cleaner, Water-based paint, Wood preservatives, Dispose of the following products at a recycling center or a collection site:
Kerosene, Motor or fuel oil, Car battery or battery acid, Diesel fuel, Transmission fluid, Large amounts of paint, Thinner or stripper, Power steering fluid, Turpentine, Gun cleaning solvents, Tires
Disposing of Medicines and Spray Cans
Flush medicines that are no longer being used or that are out-dated down the toilet and place the empty container in the trash. Empty spray cans by pressing the button until nothing comes out and then place the can in the trash. Do not place spray cans into a burning barrel, incinerator, or trash compactor because they may explode.
Keep fire extinguishers in home and car. Post the number of the nearest poison control center by the telephone. Learn to recognize the symptoms of toxic poisoning:
Difficulty in breathing
Irritation of the eyes, skin, throat, or respiratory tract
Changes in skin color
Headache or blurred vision
Clumsiness or lack of coordination
Cramps or diarrhea
If there is danger of a fire or explosion, get out of the house immediately.
If there is a fire or explosion, call the fire department after you get out.
Stay away from the house to avoid the possibility of breathing toxic fumes.
Wash hands, arms or other parts of the body that may have been exposed to the chemical. Discard any clothing that may have been contaminated. Administer first aid treatment to victims of chemical burns:
Call 9-1-1 for emergency help.
Remove clothing and jewelry from around the injury.
Pour clean, cool water over the burn for 15-30 minutes.
Loosely cover the burn with a sterile or clean dressing. Be sure that the dressing will not stick to the burn. Refer victim to a medical professional for further treatment.