Monday, December 31, 2012

Communications for Survival via Radio 101 By John Schultz


COMM FOR SURVIVAL: RADIO 101
By: John Schultz


     Many survivalists are searching for a reliable means of communication
and thus far have not found the answer.  Many others place communications
very low on the list of priorities.  When times are tough and the systems
currently in place are no longer functioning the survivor must be prepared to
provide this most basic essential for himself.  In my case, a reliable
communication system is equal in importance to guns, ammo and a years supply
of food.  In this article I sincerely hope to pass on the knowledge and
desire to provide for this important function.

     I have read many different articles on the subject of survival
communications and have not yet read one that I consider adequate.  Some
stress the advantages of ham radio, some the advantages of CB.  In all
actuality, neither of these is the perfect solution.  I will go out on a limb
and get everyone mad at me.  I have been involved in military communications
for about ten years and I am here to tell you nothing is 100% reliable all of
the time.  There are ways to approach that mark though.  At this point I must
advise you that the information in this article is presented for
informational purposes only.

     First let's discuss some problems with ham radio.  The entry level
license (no code technician) allows the licensed operator to communicate on
the popular "two-meter" band it also allows communication on other band but
two-meters is the most popular.  This band is fantastic for local or distant
communication, reception is generally clear and reliable.  The problem here
is that we are looking for communications during "bad times".  During these
times, the repeater networks that the "two-meter" band relies upon for
distant communication will break down from lack of maintenance.  The people
who maintain these repeaters will have much better things to worry about such
as where the next meal will come from.  Another scenario is that the
government may just decide that they really don't see the "legitimate
purpose" for people to have access to the repeaters anymore (or for that
matter any amateur radio).  Ham radio operators would become a threat and the
government will be able to simply go down the list of licenses and shut them
down.  Yet another problem I see with ham radio as a survival tool is simply
that the average person is not a ham operator.  When trying to gather
information on a national scale, the operator will want to reach as diverse a
group of people as possible.  There are relatively few ham radio operators as
compared to the population as a whole.  If an operator upgrades his license
to technician plus or general class he will have access to the HF portion of
the spectrum which is useful to the survivor indeed.  Communications of
several thousand miles on some of the lower HF bands are routine.

     Another option is the CB radio.  This over-rated, under-powered means of
communication in its stock form is best left to the interstates of our great
nation.  During certain atmospheric conditions, a user would be lucky to talk
one mile.  The band is filled with a great number of hopeful romeo's, filthy
mouthed lowlife's and too many radio checks.  I can't even monitor the AM
channels when my children are present due to the language and subject matter
common on the AM frequencies.  Some CB radios lend themselves well to
modification.  The Uniden Grant LX and the Cobra 148 GTL are very adaptable
to upgrade.  The power can be turned up and the frequencies can be expanded.
There are also a multitude of other useful and useless modifications that can
be made to these radios.  These are the only CB radios I can recommend.
There are many good books available on this subject.

     There is available a type of radio sometimes referred to as an "export"
radio.  They may be somewhat difficult to find due to their illegal status.
My suggestion is to buy a cheap CB first, get to know who's who in your area.
The people who can obtain "exports" are there, it is just a matter of finding
them.  These radios are technological marvels.  The normal CB is limited to
only 40 channels which covers the frequencies 26.965 to 27.405.  They are
also regulated to 4 watts of output power on AM and 12 watts Single Side Band
(more on this later).  Export radios can operate in several modes of
transmission over a much greater frequency range.  Most are capable of nearly
20 watts AM and 40 watts side band.  Many also have the capability to "slide"
between channels, thus enabling the user to talk "between" channels so to
speak.  There is also another type of radio on the market that is even better
in some ways.  These radios are "10 meter" ham radios that can be internally
modified to operate from well below the CB band to well above the "10 meter"
ham band.  One of these radio's is the Ranger Communications Incorporated,
RCI model 2950 or it's more powerful big brother the model 2970.  These
radios have a frequency range of 26 MHz to 31.999 MHz (with a very simple
modification) although most users stay within 26.000 to 27.999 for safety.
The "10-meter" ham band begins at 28 MHz, don't mess around up there.  Most
of these radios are mobile radios; in order to use one as a base station a
power supply is required to convert 120 vac to 13.8 vdc.  I would recommend
at least a 6 Amp power supply for an "export" or Ranger.  Good power supplies
cost about $75.00 or less.  There are also some export and 10 meter base
stations available which plug directly into a wall.  I feel that some
versatility is lost because a mobile radio used as a base can still be a
mobile if necessary.  A walkie-talkie or two would also be useful when on
foot.  Although normally range is limited, when communicating with a base
station they are capable of a surprising distance.  An export walkie-talkie
exists that can transmit and receive on the same frequencies as the other
export radios.

     Now, let's get back to that Side Band statement that I made.  If you
could look at the signal generated by the average CB radio it could be
described as having three layers.  The two outside layers are the  Single
Side Bands (SSB) and the middle is the carrier wave.  When the microphone is
keyed on an AM CB radio a carrier wave is emitted from the radio, this
carrier is there whether you talk or not just wasting power.  On a side band
radio, the carrier and one of the side bands is eliminated thus concentrating
more power into a narrower signal.  These side bands are referred to as the
upper side band (USB) and the lower side band (LSB).  Some CB radios are
capable of side band communication but, are still restricted to the 40
channels of the radio.  Even with this limitation a CB equipped for side band
in effect, gives you 80 side band channels and 40 AM channels to choose from.
Within the CB band, most side band communication is on the LSB of channels
35-40.  Outside the CB band, many people use the frequency 27.5550 USB as a
long distance call frequency.  This frequency is located in the so-called
"freeband" which extends from 27.4150 to 27.9990, this frequency band is an
area of spectrum which is used very little by the primary users.  Much of the
best side band long distance communication takes place in this area.

     Side-banders as they are commonly referred to are a different breed
entirely that the AM operator.  They have a protocol for operating that makes
the side bands a much more pleasant place to communicate.  These people are
usually very knowledgeable about equipment and also sources of "the good
stuff" especially when talking about free-banders.  On the sidebands, the use
of a "handle" is taboo.  They normally identify themselves with a three or
four digit number.  These numbers can be obtained through sideband
organizations or, if like me you want to stay off the lists, just make one
up.  Having a number will give you credibility so other sidebanders will talk
to you.  Another major difference between SSB operation and AM operation is
the use of "Q" codes instead of "10" codes.  If an operator tries to use the
"10" codes on SSB he will usually be in for a ribbing and, told to go back to
AM.  A complete listing of the international "Q" codes will be available in
any book about beginning Ham radio.  The best advice I can give is to monitor
the side bands, see how they operate and when you have it down make your
first contact.  Another good idea is to find a local sidebander or freebander
and treat him like a brother.  This person can guide your decisions and
prevent some very expensive mistakes.  He will also be able to relate to you
information which is not available in print.

     The antenna is the most important part of the system.  Within  the
myriad of mobile antennas, all of my research has led me to one antenna that
is worthy of consideration.  This is the Wilson 1000 antenna.  This antenna
can handle up to 3000 watts of power and can be purchased in three different
configurations; a magnetic mount, a hardmount (a hole must be drilled in the
vehicle) and a trunk lip mount.  This antenna transmits and receives better
that any whip antenna I have ever seen or used.  Since it is simply a thin,
steel whip, it is unobtrusive as well.  They may seem a little pricey at
first but, the advantages gained in performance, durability and lack of
maintenance more than make up for the costs.  I have personally talked from
the Southwestern United States to Alaska from my car with one of these
antennas.  An alternative to the Wilson 1000 is the Wilson Trucker 2000.
This antenna will handle 3500 watts of power and is essentially the same as
the 1000.  The primary difference being the type of mounting hardware
necessary.  It is sometimes a better choice for vehicles where a roof top
mount is not desired or possible as it will mount to mirrors or the body or
anywhere that you can fasten a standard 3/8 by 24 pitch antenna mount.

     Regarding base station antennas you have two types to choose from: The
beam antenna and the vertical element.  My choice is to use both through the
use of a switch box.  The vertical element is better for local communications
and, the beam is better for long distances.  Many times an operator is able
to talk to a distant station that would otherwise be unheard without the use
of a beam.  The beam antenna is mounted on a rotor which is controlled by a
control box next to the radio.  The operator simply rotates the beam until
the best signal is received.  The vertical element antenna is better for
local communications because the radiation pattern into and out of the
antenna is omni-directional.  The beam will only receive and transmit in the
direction it is pointed.  Beams are designed to multiply the transmit and
receive strength and are said to have a higher "gain".  Whichever type of
antenna you use, it is important to securely ground the mast.  I use a
minimum of 8 feet of steel or copper ground rod driven into the earth and
connected to the mast with 8 gauge wire or copper braid.  Make sure all
clamps are tight.   Popular brands for base antennas are Maco and Moonraker.
The Solarcon A-99 is a very good omni-directional as is the V58 by Maco.
Whenever an Omni is used make sure to include the ground plane radials.
These extend out from the base of the antenna and increase the efficiency
dramatically.

     An important area of concern for the radio operator is a term called
Standing Wave Ratio (SWR).  This is simply the amount of output power being
reflected back into the radio.  The higher the SWR the less efficiently your
equipment is functioning.  If the SWR is too high you will eventually cook
your radio.  An SWR reading of 2.0 or less is generally considered
acceptable, this number should be as low as possible.  Anything 3.0 or higher
will eventually damage valuable equipment.  The SWR is adjusted with the
antenna, usually  by sliding the radiating element in or out of an adjusting
sleeve or by trimming the radiating element.  In any case, follow the
manufacturers directions or seek the advice of an experienced operator.  The
coax which connects the radio to the antenna to the radio is very important
and deserves mention. In order to achieve an efficient system a good quality
coax should be used at the minimum I would recommend using MINI 8/U or RG-8/U
if the diameter is not a problem.  The very best money can buy is called
RG-213/U.  It is almost a half inch in diameter and well worth the money.  It
isn't too terribly expensive at about $30.00 for 50 feet.  The others are
substantially less.  Operators using a linear amplifier need to be unusually
careful of a high SWR.

      A linear amplifier can significantly increase the operating distance of
a radio.  These amplifiers are used to boost the power of an outgoing signal
as high as the operator's budget will allow.  I have heard it said that
amplifiers normally cost about a dollar a watt; I think this estimate is too
high.  The average I would recommend for a reliable system is about 500
watts.  This power will increase local reliability by allowing communication
over the "skip" coming in and also allow you to talk very clearly to out of
state or even out of country stations when skip conditions are good.  When
skip conditions are favorable Channel 6 (27.0250 MHz) on the CB band is a
very good example of the benefits of a linear amplifier.  Many of these
stations, even from thousands of miles away,  will sound like they are in
your back seat.  Most of the stations on channel 6 are running 1000 watts or
more.

     Skip is an atmospheric condition in which your signal can travel
thousands of miles and reach a distant station.  For the SSB operator, skip
is pretty reliable.  On any given day an operator should be able to talk out
of state to somewhere. Sometimes this condition will last only a few hours
but, it happens almost every day.  Skip occurs on the AM band as well but, it
fades in and out so fast that meaningful conversations are almost
nonexistent. I have had or heard many conversations on side band which lasted
an hour or more.  Atmospheric skip makes the radio a good source of
information on a national scale.  This oversight probably has the FCC fuming
but, there is an unenforceable law which states that it is illegal to attempt
to make contact with another station that is over 150 miles away in the
Citizens Band.  Even a totally stock, out of the box CB has the capability to
make contact with other states occasionally.

      There is currently a government agency called the Federal
Communications Commission (FCC), which regulates and enforces all forms of
inter-communication in the United States.  These people are to free
communication what the BATF is to firearms.  Two-way communication is only
legal through strict government guidelines.  The very nature of the "ham
license" only adds to the "law and order" society which the bureaucrats want
to create.  This licensing process is simply a means of keeping tabs on
two-way communication.  Nazi Germany was also interested in controlling
communication as are all totalitarian regimes.  In many countries simply
possessing a means of two-way communication is as serious of an offense as
possession of an unauthorized gun.  Don't worry though, "it can't happen
here, the republicans are here to save us".

     The situation we find ourselves in now in the United States is becoming
more precarious each day.  The Republican revolution, for the most part, has
turned into just another scam on the American people.  Our currency is
teetering on the brink of collapse.  The committed survivor must be prepared
to provide this important asset to his family or group.  One day when you
pick up your "cell-phone" and nothing happens what will you do?  Hopefully
you will just reach down and turn on the radio, but if you don't have one....

Communications for Survival via Radio 101 By John Schultz


COMM FOR SURVIVAL: RADIO 101
By: John Schultz


     Many survivalists are searching for a reliable means of communication
and thus far have not found the answer.  Many others place communications
very low on the list of priorities.  When times are tough and the systems
currently in place are no longer functioning the survivor must be prepared to
provide this most basic essential for himself.  In my case, a reliable
communication system is equal in importance to guns, ammo and a years supply
of food.  In this article I sincerely hope to pass on the knowledge and
desire to provide for this important function.

     I have read many different articles on the subject of survival
communications and have not yet read one that I consider adequate.  Some
stress the advantages of ham radio, some the advantages of CB.  In all
actuality, neither of these is the perfect solution.  I will go out on a limb
and get everyone mad at me.  I have been involved in military communications
for about ten years and I am here to tell you nothing is 100% reliable all of
the time.  There are ways to approach that mark though.  At this point I must
advise you that the information in this article is presented for
informational purposes only.

     First let's discuss some problems with ham radio.  The entry level
license (no code technician) allows the licensed operator to communicate on
the popular "two-meter" band it also allows communication on other band but
two-meters is the most popular.  This band is fantastic for local or distant
communication, reception is generally clear and reliable.  The problem here
is that we are looking for communications during "bad times".  During these
times, the repeater networks that the "two-meter" band relies upon for
distant communication will break down from lack of maintenance.  The people
who maintain these repeaters will have much better things to worry about such
as where the next meal will come from.  Another scenario is that the
government may just decide that they really don't see the "legitimate
purpose" for people to have access to the repeaters anymore (or for that
matter any amateur radio).  Ham radio operators would become a threat and the
government will be able to simply go down the list of licenses and shut them
down.  Yet another problem I see with ham radio as a survival tool is simply
that the average person is not a ham operator.  When trying to gather
information on a national scale, the operator will want to reach as diverse a
group of people as possible.  There are relatively few ham radio operators as
compared to the population as a whole.  If an operator upgrades his license
to technician plus or general class he will have access to the HF portion of
the spectrum which is useful to the survivor indeed.  Communications of
several thousand miles on some of the lower HF bands are routine.

     Another option is the CB radio.  This over-rated, under-powered means of
communication in its stock form is best left to the interstates of our great
nation.  During certain atmospheric conditions, a user would be lucky to talk
one mile.  The band is filled with a great number of hopeful romeo's, filthy
mouthed lowlife's and too many radio checks.  I can't even monitor the AM
channels when my children are present due to the language and subject matter
common on the AM frequencies.  Some CB radios lend themselves well to
modification.  The Uniden Grant LX and the Cobra 148 GTL are very adaptable
to upgrade.  The power can be turned up and the frequencies can be expanded.
There are also a multitude of other useful and useless modifications that can
be made to these radios.  These are the only CB radios I can recommend.
There are many good books available on this subject.

     There is available a type of radio sometimes referred to as an "export"
radio.  They may be somewhat difficult to find due to their illegal status.
My suggestion is to buy a cheap CB first, get to know who's who in your area.
The people who can obtain "exports" are there, it is just a matter of finding
them.  These radios are technological marvels.  The normal CB is limited to
only 40 channels which covers the frequencies 26.965 to 27.405.  They are
also regulated to 4 watts of output power on AM and 12 watts Single Side Band
(more on this later).  Export radios can operate in several modes of
transmission over a much greater frequency range.  Most are capable of nearly
20 watts AM and 40 watts side band.  Many also have the capability to "slide"
between channels, thus enabling the user to talk "between" channels so to
speak.  There is also another type of radio on the market that is even better
in some ways.  These radios are "10 meter" ham radios that can be internally
modified to operate from well below the CB band to well above the "10 meter"
ham band.  One of these radio's is the Ranger Communications Incorporated,
RCI model 2950 or it's more powerful big brother the model 2970.  These
radios have a frequency range of 26 MHz to 31.999 MHz (with a very simple
modification) although most users stay within 26.000 to 27.999 for safety.
The "10-meter" ham band begins at 28 MHz, don't mess around up there.  Most
of these radios are mobile radios; in order to use one as a base station a
power supply is required to convert 120 vac to 13.8 vdc.  I would recommend
at least a 6 Amp power supply for an "export" or Ranger.  Good power supplies
cost about $75.00 or less.  There are also some export and 10 meter base
stations available which plug directly into a wall.  I feel that some
versatility is lost because a mobile radio used as a base can still be a
mobile if necessary.  A walkie-talkie or two would also be useful when on
foot.  Although normally range is limited, when communicating with a base
station they are capable of a surprising distance.  An export walkie-talkie
exists that can transmit and receive on the same frequencies as the other
export radios.

     Now, let's get back to that Side Band statement that I made.  If you
could look at the signal generated by the average CB radio it could be
described as having three layers.  The two outside layers are the  Single
Side Bands (SSB) and the middle is the carrier wave.  When the microphone is
keyed on an AM CB radio a carrier wave is emitted from the radio, this
carrier is there whether you talk or not just wasting power.  On a side band
radio, the carrier and one of the side bands is eliminated thus concentrating
more power into a narrower signal.  These side bands are referred to as the
upper side band (USB) and the lower side band (LSB).  Some CB radios are
capable of side band communication but, are still restricted to the 40
channels of the radio.  Even with this limitation a CB equipped for side band
in effect, gives you 80 side band channels and 40 AM channels to choose from.
Within the CB band, most side band communication is on the LSB of channels
35-40.  Outside the CB band, many people use the frequency 27.5550 USB as a
long distance call frequency.  This frequency is located in the so-called
"freeband" which extends from 27.4150 to 27.9990, this frequency band is an
area of spectrum which is used very little by the primary users.  Much of the
best side band long distance communication takes place in this area.

     Side-banders as they are commonly referred to are a different breed
entirely that the AM operator.  They have a protocol for operating that makes
the side bands a much more pleasant place to communicate.  These people are
usually very knowledgeable about equipment and also sources of "the good
stuff" especially when talking about free-banders.  On the sidebands, the use
of a "handle" is taboo.  They normally identify themselves with a three or
four digit number.  These numbers can be obtained through sideband
organizations or, if like me you want to stay off the lists, just make one
up.  Having a number will give you credibility so other sidebanders will talk
to you.  Another major difference between SSB operation and AM operation is
the use of "Q" codes instead of "10" codes.  If an operator tries to use the
"10" codes on SSB he will usually be in for a ribbing and, told to go back to
AM.  A complete listing of the international "Q" codes will be available in
any book about beginning Ham radio.  The best advice I can give is to monitor
the side bands, see how they operate and when you have it down make your
first contact.  Another good idea is to find a local sidebander or freebander
and treat him like a brother.  This person can guide your decisions and
prevent some very expensive mistakes.  He will also be able to relate to you
information which is not available in print.

     The antenna is the most important part of the system.  Within  the
myriad of mobile antennas, all of my research has led me to one antenna that
is worthy of consideration.  This is the Wilson 1000 antenna.  This antenna
can handle up to 3000 watts of power and can be purchased in three different
configurations; a magnetic mount, a hardmount (a hole must be drilled in the
vehicle) and a trunk lip mount.  This antenna transmits and receives better
that any whip antenna I have ever seen or used.  Since it is simply a thin,
steel whip, it is unobtrusive as well.  They may seem a little pricey at
first but, the advantages gained in performance, durability and lack of
maintenance more than make up for the costs.  I have personally talked from
the Southwestern United States to Alaska from my car with one of these
antennas.  An alternative to the Wilson 1000 is the Wilson Trucker 2000.
This antenna will handle 3500 watts of power and is essentially the same as
the 1000.  The primary difference being the type of mounting hardware
necessary.  It is sometimes a better choice for vehicles where a roof top
mount is not desired or possible as it will mount to mirrors or the body or
anywhere that you can fasten a standard 3/8 by 24 pitch antenna mount.

     Regarding base station antennas you have two types to choose from: The
beam antenna and the vertical element.  My choice is to use both through the
use of a switch box.  The vertical element is better for local communications
and, the beam is better for long distances.  Many times an operator is able
to talk to a distant station that would otherwise be unheard without the use
of a beam.  The beam antenna is mounted on a rotor which is controlled by a
control box next to the radio.  The operator simply rotates the beam until
the best signal is received.  The vertical element antenna is better for
local communications because the radiation pattern into and out of the
antenna is omni-directional.  The beam will only receive and transmit in the
direction it is pointed.  Beams are designed to multiply the transmit and
receive strength and are said to have a higher "gain".  Whichever type of
antenna you use, it is important to securely ground the mast.  I use a
minimum of 8 feet of steel or copper ground rod driven into the earth and
connected to the mast with 8 gauge wire or copper braid.  Make sure all
clamps are tight.   Popular brands for base antennas are Maco and Moonraker.
The Solarcon A-99 is a very good omni-directional as is the V58 by Maco.
Whenever an Omni is used make sure to include the ground plane radials.
These extend out from the base of the antenna and increase the efficiency
dramatically.

     An important area of concern for the radio operator is a term called
Standing Wave Ratio (SWR).  This is simply the amount of output power being
reflected back into the radio.  The higher the SWR the less efficiently your
equipment is functioning.  If the SWR is too high you will eventually cook
your radio.  An SWR reading of 2.0 or less is generally considered
acceptable, this number should be as low as possible.  Anything 3.0 or higher
will eventually damage valuable equipment.  The SWR is adjusted with the
antenna, usually  by sliding the radiating element in or out of an adjusting
sleeve or by trimming the radiating element.  In any case, follow the
manufacturers directions or seek the advice of an experienced operator.  The
coax which connects the radio to the antenna to the radio is very important
and deserves mention. In order to achieve an efficient system a good quality
coax should be used at the minimum I would recommend using MINI 8/U or RG-8/U
if the diameter is not a problem.  The very best money can buy is called
RG-213/U.  It is almost a half inch in diameter and well worth the money.  It
isn't too terribly expensive at about $30.00 for 50 feet.  The others are
substantially less.  Operators using a linear amplifier need to be unusually
careful of a high SWR.

      A linear amplifier can significantly increase the operating distance of
a radio.  These amplifiers are used to boost the power of an outgoing signal
as high as the operator's budget will allow.  I have heard it said that
amplifiers normally cost about a dollar a watt; I think this estimate is too
high.  The average I would recommend for a reliable system is about 500
watts.  This power will increase local reliability by allowing communication
over the "skip" coming in and also allow you to talk very clearly to out of
state or even out of country stations when skip conditions are good.  When
skip conditions are favorable Channel 6 (27.0250 MHz) on the CB band is a
very good example of the benefits of a linear amplifier.  Many of these
stations, even from thousands of miles away,  will sound like they are in
your back seat.  Most of the stations on channel 6 are running 1000 watts or
more.

     Skip is an atmospheric condition in which your signal can travel
thousands of miles and reach a distant station.  For the SSB operator, skip
is pretty reliable.  On any given day an operator should be able to talk out
of state to somewhere. Sometimes this condition will last only a few hours
but, it happens almost every day.  Skip occurs on the AM band as well but, it
fades in and out so fast that meaningful conversations are almost
nonexistent. I have had or heard many conversations on side band which lasted
an hour or more.  Atmospheric skip makes the radio a good source of
information on a national scale.  This oversight probably has the FCC fuming
but, there is an unenforceable law which states that it is illegal to attempt
to make contact with another station that is over 150 miles away in the
Citizens Band.  Even a totally stock, out of the box CB has the capability to
make contact with other states occasionally.

      There is currently a government agency called the Federal
Communications Commission (FCC), which regulates and enforces all forms of
inter-communication in the United States.  These people are to free
communication what the BATF is to firearms.  Two-way communication is only
legal through strict government guidelines.  The very nature of the "ham
license" only adds to the "law and order" society which the bureaucrats want
to create.  This licensing process is simply a means of keeping tabs on
two-way communication.  Nazi Germany was also interested in controlling
communication as are all totalitarian regimes.  In many countries simply
possessing a means of two-way communication is as serious of an offense as
possession of an unauthorized gun.  Don't worry though, "it can't happen
here, the republicans are here to save us".

     The situation we find ourselves in now in the United States is becoming
more precarious each day.  The Republican revolution, for the most part, has
turned into just another scam on the American people.  Our currency is
teetering on the brink of collapse.  The committed survivor must be prepared
to provide this important asset to his family or group.  One day when you
pick up your "cell-phone" and nothing happens what will you do?  Hopefully
you will just reach down and turn on the radio, but if you don't have one....

Sunday, December 30, 2012

10 Packs for Survival By Joel @Skousen, 1980



                          10 Packs for Survival
                           Joel @Skousen, 1980

INTRODUCTION

     This booklet was prepared to provide you with the essential minimums
for survival preparations. While it is not exhaustive in coverage, it is
complete as to the needs of most people. Before adding long lists of your
personal extra needs, try calculating the cost of these bare essentials.
You will be amazed at the high cost of contingency preparations. This is
not intended to discourage you, but rather, to help you realistically
determine your future financial priorities so as to ensure you have bought
the essentials before adding the sophisticated extras. After you have
acquired about half of the recommended items, you will become aware of a
critical lack of storage space within your home--if it is designed like
most American houses. To assist you in planning for a more self-sufficient
residence we have also included a brief summary of the concepts outlined
in the 500 page SURVIVAL Home Manual. If you desire to pursue the subject
in more detail, we suggest you order the manual direct from our
Architectural offices using the order form at the end to the booklet.

PHILOSOPHY AND DESIGN CRITERIA OF THE SURVIVAL HOME

     Survival architecture is the unique design combination (in the proper
proportion) of facilities, materials, supplies, equipment, knowledge and
skill exactly matching a correct analysis of what shortages and crises we
will face in the future. In achieving this purpose I make reference to the
fact that "survival means more than solar" to emphasize the need to avoid
becoming too involved with only one aspect of self-sufficiency at the
expense of the others. This error in proper perspective has become the most
common mistake in the entire craze for self-sufficiency. With each new
product devised, a corresponding marketing slogan usually appears
describing "how you can become totally self-sufficient" with their product.
The potential severity of future crises, however, seems to dictate that no
one product brings total self-sufficiency. It seems most probable in the
final analysis that no set of products or facilities, no matter how
complete,brings anything but temporary self-sufficiency for a lone
individual.

     There are a variety of terms and definitions floating around in the
"self-sufficiency" arena--one of the least understood pertains to "survival
and "retreat" philosophy. "Self-sufficiency" as a term is well accepted and
enjoys frequent use among the entire social strata, whereas "survival"
intimates "gloom and doom". However, under more   careful scrutiny, it
becomes obvious that "survival" and "self-sufficiency" are nearly
synonymous. In actuality, the purpose of self-sufficiency is to SURVIVE
various crises where one is in competition with others for scarce
resources: ie, food and fuel shortages, dwindling finances, or social
unrest, etc.

     There is a significant difference between the general term "survival"
and its child, the "retreat" philosophy, which is an ultimate reaction at
the limits of the self-sufficiency concept.

WHY SELF - SUFFICIENCY?

     Many subscribe to the view that most of our future economic woes and
commodity shortages will be government induced through bureaucratic
mismanagement and excessive regulation. So, you say, the responsibility
will simply fall back on ourselves, where it rightly belongs. However, this
view overlooks our prime and ever-increasing social weakness; that our
society has become so specialized in its occupational endeavors, we no
longer have the will or skills to revert rapidly to a generalists society
with each providing his own essential skills and services. Thus, we
encounter the real reason for the craze for self-sufficiency: the inner
need to become confident in our ability to provide for ourselves and our
family should a minor or major crisis or shortage arise. The motive to save
a few heating dollars is perhaps primary with many who may purchase a wood
stove, but it soon becomes obvious to most woodburners that wood heat is
only a small portion of their total self-sufficiency needs.

     In fact, when you tally all the other additional self-sufficiency
needs such as water, waste disposal, electricity, storage space, tools, and
security, you suddenly realize that you have come face to face with the
word "survival", which is the word that, in essence, reflects "ultimate
self-sufficiency".

EVERYTHING INVOLVES A PRIORITY CHOICE.

     While the survival retreat concept gets all the headlines in the hard
money newsletters, its share of actual dollars invested is insignificant.
From my experience as the architect most often involved in survival
housing, the majority of client energy and funds are devoted to residential
upgrade and preparation within the bounds of suburban or semi-rural living.
Why? Frankly because very few people have the time, money or inclination
to separate themselves completely from society even though they believe
that difficult economic and social problems will be forthcoming.

     100% rural self-sufficiency is almost impossible to achieve on
anything more than a hermit level. Even then it is either all-time
consuming or inordinately expensive and probably both.

     In the final analysis then, everything in the survival and
self-sufficiency field is a compromise or trade off of one lesser asset for
another more important to you. If you want isolation to have security, then
you usually sacrifice social ties, time and gasoline in commuting, and
maybe electricity, telephone, and leadership opportunities.

     There are ways of overcoming these compromises--if you have enough
money, additional manpower and equipment; but you may become so
sophisticated that you aren't self-sufficient any more. No two individuals
or families should utilize the same self-sufficiency plans.

HERE ARE THE ESSENTIAL STEPS

     l. Begin reading non-governmental analyses of the state of the nation.
        Specifically: political, Economic, social, military, and moral
        trends. Reading recommendations include:
          PERSONAL FINANCE newsletter
          901 N. Washington St. suite 605,                            
          Alexandria, Va 22314

          Gary North's REMNANT REVIEW.
          P. O. BOX 39800,
          Phoenix, AZ 85069

     2. Analyze the condition of your local state and community as to long
        term survivability in a crisis:
          Most favorable criteria are:
          a. low population density (50 people per sq. mile or less)
          b. High level of religious, moral character.
          c. Lack of highly unionized heavy industry, or welfare populous.
          d. Strong local autonomy with little attachment to federal funds.
          e. Diversified economy with an agricultural base.

     3. Make a series of decisions based upon your national and local
     assessment as what problems you most likely will encounter. Note: You
     cannot come to a proper design of a self-sufficient or survival
     residence unless you have determined what shortages, crises, or
     threats you face. The better your research, the more accurate your
     predictions will be.

     4. Read the SURVIVaL HOME MANUAL and study the essentials of survival
     residential design to determine what your present home lacks and what
     is available in new or remodeled survival construction.

     5. Determine, financially and security wise, whether you should remain
     in your present home and remodel, move and build or buy a more
     suitable home. Consider job, and/or commuting time. It is imperative
     that you do not destroy your income producing ability unless you have
     other means or opportunities to turn to which will survive most
     economic downturns. Don't be tricked into thinking you can go "live
     off the land". The capital required for machinery and non-growable
     necessities will require substantial monthly income.

     6. Start saving and begin a monthly procurement plan for acquiring the
     items listed in the 10 packs for survival. Do it each month--don't
     wait for enough money to accumulate for a one time purchase of
     everything--it may not be readily available then.

     The foregoing introductory material is essential in order to
appreciate the following survival design criteria. The quantity of
preparedness features I will describe may not be necessary in every case,
depending on the relative security of the location you choose to live in.
Remember, the more self-sufficient and secure the area in which you live,
the less it costs you to prepare for personal survival,,

PRIMARY FAULTS OF CONVENTIONAL HOUSING

     The following are the six essential liabilities of the conventional
residential structure:

     1. Lack of security (fire, intrusion, vandalism)
     2. Poor resistance to heat, cold, wind, and sun.
     3. Lack of storage facilities (food, dry goods, machinery etc).
     4. Poor floor plan efficiency (costly wasted space, lack of emergency
        accommodations)
     5. Single source of heat for space heating, water heating, ,@Ind  
        cooking.
     6. Single source of water and electrical power.

DESIGN CRITERIA

     In my actual design work, the most common concern expressed by the
wife of a client is that the home not look like a fortress or a bunker.
This is not only possible but preferable. There is no benefit in becoming
a known target for resentment during hard times. The best survival
residences are designed to look completely conventional both inside and
out, so that you may stay within the bounds of society without appearing
as an extremist and encouraging undue resentment.

     The properly designed survival residence has within its walls and
private recesses all the equipment and design technology that allows you
to maintain a nearly normal lifestyle throughout a crisis. This is
extremely important to the family man who must maintain his income during
hard times. He cannot afford to take time off from work to heat hot water
over a camp stove during an electrical outage or stand guard over his house
day and night when major civil disturbances occur.

     The following are some of the major design features of a survival
residence:

     l. Independent well water and/or water storage facilities integral
        with the home.
     2. Multi-fuel furnace (burns at least three different fuels)
     3. Reserve or standby electrical power.
     4. Multi-fuel cooking facilities, and water heating equipment
     5. Secure walls, doors, and windows with intrusion monitoring    
        equipment.
     6. Superior energy-conserving structural design utilizing solar and
        underground design where possible.
     7. Secret and semi-private storage facilities which include a fallout
        shelter.
     8. Maintenance and repair facilities with appropriate tools.
     9. Greenhouse and other food production facilities
     10. Internal communications equipment.

     If you are questioning the potential costliness of a full survival
residence, consider this: it is not intended to discourage you from acting
due to lack of sufficient funds, but rather to show you the importance of
ordering your financial priorities In order to start preparing in the most
critical areas first. In all cases, never place all of your available funds
into one, or even two areas at the exclusion of all others.

     If, in the final analysis, you find that not all of your
self-sufficiency preparations were utilized, you will have at least spent
many a restful night with the assurance that you have done everything
within your ability to prepare you and your family for realistic potential
difficulties.

     Both those who wish to relocate permanently and those who may simply
desire to construct a vacation retreat cabin elsewhere will need some
guidance as to the best areas for security: We have made available to our
clients the most comprehensive security map covering the entire United
States, both as to the most dangerous areas and the most secure areas. It
represents many years of research and analysis and may be ordered direct
from the architectural and planning division using the order form at the
end of this booklet.

FOOD PACK

     200 LBS/PERSON, HARD WINTER WHEAT
     50 LBS/PERSON,RICE
     50 LBS/PERSON, BEANS
     10 LBS/PERSON, HONEY
     25 LBS/PERSON, POWDERED MILK(non-instant type)
     6-months supply NORMAL CANNED GOODS AND BOTTLED FRUIT

     1-large bottle 1000mg VITAMIN C 1-large bottle MULTIPLE VITAMIN
     2-CLOVE GARLIC (nature's anti-biotic) (keep refrigerated)

     4-#10 can/person dehydrated fruits and vegetables (use for variety-not
       for bulk)
     SALT, PEPPER, SPICES
     OIL (keep refrigerated)

WATER PACK

     1- portable WATER WASHER filtering kit
          (from AMERICAN WATER PURIFICATION CO.
          1990 @Olivera Rd. Concord, Ca 94520)
     1/person WATER STRAW individual filter straw (from American Water
       @Purif.)
     1-PACK SCIENTIFIC FILTER PAPER (cone) (12v diameter papers)
     1/person 10 GALLON GLASS DISTILLED WATER BOTTLE. (date and seal with
       stopper and tape. Wrap on bottom and sides with dense foam carpet
       pad to protect against earthquake or jarring.
     1-Bottle HALAZONE TABS. or regular CHLORINE BLEACH for water      
       purification.

POWER PACK

     1-MOBILE, SELF-CONTAINED 3KW 120/220V GENERATOR (DIESEL OR      
       GASOLINE/GAS) with one month fuel supply in portable tanks
     1-12 volt AUTO BATTERY with carry strap trickle charger, and jumper
       cables and 12V light attachment.
     1-100 ft. 4-PLUG HEAVY DUTY EXTENSION CORD with built in light bulb
       (rough duty rated) in a "cage".
     2-HAND-OPERATED FLASHLIGHTS (item #605-771w695 from US GENERAL catalog
       100 General Place, @Jerico N.Y. 11753)
     2-NICAD FLASHLIGHTS (item # 852-5350W US GENERAL catalog)
     1-long range POLICE-TYPE FLASHLIGHT with extra bulbs.
     SUPPLY OF NICAD BATTERIES with CHARGER:
          8-"D" CELL
          4-"C" CELL
          16-"AA" CELL
          2-9V TRANSISTOR TYPE.

@MED PACK

     BLOOD PRESSURE GAUGE (electronic)
     STETHOSCOPE
     BANDAGE SCISSORS
     LONG TWEEZERS
     2-LOCKING FORCEPS (1-curved point)
     DISPOSABLE SCALPELS
     THERMOMETER (ORAL AND RECTAL)
     INFLATABLE SPLINTS
     BANDAGES elastic, self adhesive
          Band-aids
          large compress type with straps.
     SUTURES (dissolvable)
     cotton backed ADHESIVE TAPE
     GAUZE
     ALOE VERA BURN OINTMENT
     ANTI-BIOTIC OINTMENT
     ASPIRIN
     RUBBING ALCOHOL
     IPECAC SYRUP (to induce vomiting)
     CONTAINER OF STERILE WATER (1 qt)
     CLEAN ABSORBENT COTTON RAGS
     SOAP (liquid)
     Long Stemmed cotton swabs

TRANSPORTATION PACK

     1/person: 10 speed BICYCLE with heavy. duty tires, rack and carriers.
       lights
     1 emergency VEHICLE (recommend VW VANAGAN with trailer hitch, locking
       gas cap, and camper options. Install bike racks front and rear, and
       extra 30 gallon gas tank. Carry oil cans two flashlights
     EMERGENCY TOOL KIT: extra fan belts, metric wrenches and sockets, oil
       filter, air filter fuel filter, spark plugs, points, condenser,
       fuses, light bulbs, head light, tire pump, aerosol tire repair
       sealer, Jumper cables, tow cable w/hooks.
     INFLATABLE RAFT (4 man) with paddles.
     1-250cc MOTORCYCLE equipped for road and off road use. Add equipment
       and extra fuel tank carriers.

TRAVEL PACK

(THESE ITEMS SHOULD BE PACKED IN PORTABLE "DUFFLE BAGS" READY TO GO)

     1-qt WATER per person
     2-"energy bars" per person
     DEHYDRATED FOOD PACK for one week dried fruit, vegetables, meat flour,
        oil, salt, pepper, spices vitamins, honey,peanut butter crackers,
        protein powder, powder milk
     collapsible 5 ga. WATER CONTAINERS
     "WATER WASHER" FILTER
     lightweight COOK KIT large pot, dishes, spoons, forks knives, cups,
        non-stick skillet spatula, can opener, large spoon
     TOWELS
     2-water proof nylon tarps
     CHANGE OF CLOTHES FOR EACH PERSON
     COATS,
     1-thermal blanket
     1-SLEEPING BAG / person
     MATCHES, FIRE STARTER
     COMPASS, MAPS of areas of intended use
     2-RECHARGEABLE FLASHLIGHTS
     12v TROUBLE LIGHT w/@cig. liter plug
     FIRST AID KIT
     TOILET PAPER, soap
     1-Pocket knife
     1-FISHING KIT
     1-large BOWIE KNIFE (western cutlery) (perfectly weighted to serve as
       both fire knife and hatchet etc)
     1-small portable mt. climber's stove
     1-back pack with frame
     paper, pencil
     signaling Mirror
     1-manual flashlight
     WHISTLE , PORTABLE CABLE SAW
     small bottle of bleach, Insect Repellent.
     MAGNIFYING GLASS
     100 ft. 1/2 dia. GOLDLINE ROPE,
     2 pulleys
     50 ft. nylon "shroudline" cord
     .22 caliber pistol w/ 500 @rds. ammo.

COMMUNICATIONS PACK

     MULTI-BAND RECEIVER/SCANNER
     1-CITIZENS BAND TRANSCEIVER
     2- 3 CHANNEL PORTABLE TRANSCEIVERS rechargeable batteries
     PORTABLE POWER PACK, ANTENNAS
     1-SMALL PORTABLE TELEVISION (battery operated)

EQUIPMENT PACK

     1-GRIND ALL Grinder(for wheat, corn beans, peas, nuts etc.)    
       RAM PRODUCTS 765 So. University Ave. Provo, Ut. 84601  
     1-GRAIN COUNTRY bread mixer. FOOD SCIENCE @CORP. 95 NO. 200 E.    
       American Fork, Ut 84003
     1- @VICTORIO STRAINER (@Vitantonio Corp @Willoughby, Ohio 44090)
     1-Hand operated CAN OPENER
     1-STEAM CANNER with canning bottles w/Lids and rings for two seasons
     CUTLERY: high quality KNIVES-
          a. peeler/filet knife
          b. pairing knife (short small)
          c. long Slicing knife.
     1-portable ELECTRIC ICEBOX 12V.
          @KOOLATRON industries limited
          56 Harvester Ave. Batavia N.Y. 14020
     Kerosene LAMP/HEATER by ALADDIN
     TWO BURNER KEROSENE OR PROPANE STOVE with one month fuel supply
     HAND OPERATED CLOTHES WRINGER.
     TREADLE SEWING MACHINE or treadle attachment for your electric  
        machine.
     PORTABLE ELECTRIC HOT PLATE
     FIRE EXTINGUISHER (portable)

DEFENSE PACK

     .22 cal.PISTOL (9-shot revolver or 15 shot Auto) w/ 1000 rds. ammo.
     .22 cal. RIFLE w/1000 rds. ammo.
      45 cal. auto PISTOL w/ 100 rds. am~o.
     .223 RIFLE (Mini14 by RUGER) w/ 500 rds. ammo.
     2- canisters of AEROSOL MACE
     1-POCKET KNIFE 1- BOWIE KNIFE

TOOL PACK

     1- 250 amp PORTABLE ARC WELDER
     PELLETIZED OXY-ACETYLENE TORCH
     PROPANE TORCH w/SPARK LIGHTER
     SOLDER/FLUX (electrical and non)
     ALLEN WRENCH SET
     NUT DRIVER SET
     TAP & DIE SET (national course,fine)
     SOCKET SET & RATCHET HANDLE, @EXTENS.
     CHANNEL LOCK PLIERS
     2-ADJUSTABLE "CRESCENT" WRENCHES
     NEEDLE NOSE PLIERS WITH WIRE CUT.
     VISE GRIP PLIERS WITH NARROW JAW
     METAL CHISEL
     WOOD CHISEL SET
     METAL PUNCH/DRIFT
     TIN SNIPS
     CLAW HAMMER
     SMALL, LARGE SCREWDRIVERS
     SMALL, LARGE PHILLIPS SCREWDRIVERS
     HAND OPERATED TWIST DRILL
     AUGER EXPANSION BIT WITH BRACE
     HACK SAW
     BOW SAW
     HANDSAW (10 PT TEETH)
     LARGE PRY BAR/WRECKING BAR
     AX
     HATCHET
     SMALL BLOCK AND TACKLE or 'come-a-long" hand operated winch.
     GLUE assorted
     NAILS, NUTS, BOLTS, SCREWS
     electric MULTI METER,  
     110 circuit test light BARTER ITEMS

BARTER

   These items generally meet all of the following criteria for Barter

l. High consumer demand
2. Not easily home manufactured
3. Durable in storage
4. Divisible in small quantities
5. Authenticity easily recognizable

     LIQUID DETERGENT, LAUNDRY
     DETERGENT
     RUBBING ALCOHOL, BLEACH
     TOOTHBRUSHES
     RAZOR BLADES
     TOILET PAPER
     ALUMINUM FOIL
     WRITING PAPER, TYPING PAPER,
     PENS,
     PENCILS, ERASERS
     SHOELACES, STRING, CORD, ROPE
     FISHING LINE
     INSECT REPELLENT, WATER
     REPELLENT
     PAINT, VARNISH
     MATCHES
     WATCHES
     TAPE
     LIGHT BULBS
     NEEDLES, THREAD, ZIPPERS, BUTTONS
     ASPIRIN, VITAMINS, OTHER DRUGS
     SEEDS, GRAIN, SUGAR,
     COFFEE, LIQUOR, CIGARETTES
     ANTI-BIOTICS, BURN OINTMENTS
     SAFETY PINS
     MANUAL CAN OPENER
     KNIVES
     CANNING JARS, LIDS, RINGS
     SHOES, BOOTS, SOCKS, NYLON
     STOCKINGS
     UNDERWEAR, WINTER CLOTHES
     COATS
     BLANKETS
     HAND GUNS, RIFLES,AMMUNITION
     FUELS (ALL TYPES)
     QUARTS OF MULTI-VIS MOTOR OIL
     ANTI-FREEZE
     WIRE
     GLUES
     BOLTS, SCREWS, NAILS

10 Packs for Survival By Joel @Skousen, 1980



                          10 Packs for Survival
                           Joel @Skousen, 1980

INTRODUCTION

     This booklet was prepared to provide you with the essential minimums
for survival preparations. While it is not exhaustive in coverage, it is
complete as to the needs of most people. Before adding long lists of your
personal extra needs, try calculating the cost of these bare essentials.
You will be amazed at the high cost of contingency preparations. This is
not intended to discourage you, but rather, to help you realistically
determine your future financial priorities so as to ensure you have bought
the essentials before adding the sophisticated extras. After you have
acquired about half of the recommended items, you will become aware of a
critical lack of storage space within your home--if it is designed like
most American houses. To assist you in planning for a more self-sufficient
residence we have also included a brief summary of the concepts outlined
in the 500 page SURVIVAL Home Manual. If you desire to pursue the subject
in more detail, we suggest you order the manual direct from our
Architectural offices using the order form at the end to the booklet.

PHILOSOPHY AND DESIGN CRITERIA OF THE SURVIVAL HOME

     Survival architecture is the unique design combination (in the proper
proportion) of facilities, materials, supplies, equipment, knowledge and
skill exactly matching a correct analysis of what shortages and crises we
will face in the future. In achieving this purpose I make reference to the
fact that "survival means more than solar" to emphasize the need to avoid
becoming too involved with only one aspect of self-sufficiency at the
expense of the others. This error in proper perspective has become the most
common mistake in the entire craze for self-sufficiency. With each new
product devised, a corresponding marketing slogan usually appears
describing "how you can become totally self-sufficient" with their product.
The potential severity of future crises, however, seems to dictate that no
one product brings total self-sufficiency. It seems most probable in the
final analysis that no set of products or facilities, no matter how
complete,brings anything but temporary self-sufficiency for a lone
individual.

     There are a variety of terms and definitions floating around in the
"self-sufficiency" arena--one of the least understood pertains to "survival
and "retreat" philosophy. "Self-sufficiency" as a term is well accepted and
enjoys frequent use among the entire social strata, whereas "survival"
intimates "gloom and doom". However, under more   careful scrutiny, it
becomes obvious that "survival" and "self-sufficiency" are nearly
synonymous. In actuality, the purpose of self-sufficiency is to SURVIVE
various crises where one is in competition with others for scarce
resources: ie, food and fuel shortages, dwindling finances, or social
unrest, etc.

     There is a significant difference between the general term "survival"
and its child, the "retreat" philosophy, which is an ultimate reaction at
the limits of the self-sufficiency concept.

WHY SELF - SUFFICIENCY?

     Many subscribe to the view that most of our future economic woes and
commodity shortages will be government induced through bureaucratic
mismanagement and excessive regulation. So, you say, the responsibility
will simply fall back on ourselves, where it rightly belongs. However, this
view overlooks our prime and ever-increasing social weakness; that our
society has become so specialized in its occupational endeavors, we no
longer have the will or skills to revert rapidly to a generalists society
with each providing his own essential skills and services. Thus, we
encounter the real reason for the craze for self-sufficiency: the inner
need to become confident in our ability to provide for ourselves and our
family should a minor or major crisis or shortage arise. The motive to save
a few heating dollars is perhaps primary with many who may purchase a wood
stove, but it soon becomes obvious to most woodburners that wood heat is
only a small portion of their total self-sufficiency needs.

     In fact, when you tally all the other additional self-sufficiency
needs such as water, waste disposal, electricity, storage space, tools, and
security, you suddenly realize that you have come face to face with the
word "survival", which is the word that, in essence, reflects "ultimate
self-sufficiency".

EVERYTHING INVOLVES A PRIORITY CHOICE.

     While the survival retreat concept gets all the headlines in the hard
money newsletters, its share of actual dollars invested is insignificant.
From my experience as the architect most often involved in survival
housing, the majority of client energy and funds are devoted to residential
upgrade and preparation within the bounds of suburban or semi-rural living.
Why? Frankly because very few people have the time, money or inclination
to separate themselves completely from society even though they believe
that difficult economic and social problems will be forthcoming.

     100% rural self-sufficiency is almost impossible to achieve on
anything more than a hermit level. Even then it is either all-time
consuming or inordinately expensive and probably both.

     In the final analysis then, everything in the survival and
self-sufficiency field is a compromise or trade off of one lesser asset for
another more important to you. If you want isolation to have security, then
you usually sacrifice social ties, time and gasoline in commuting, and
maybe electricity, telephone, and leadership opportunities.

     There are ways of overcoming these compromises--if you have enough
money, additional manpower and equipment; but you may become so
sophisticated that you aren't self-sufficient any more. No two individuals
or families should utilize the same self-sufficiency plans.

HERE ARE THE ESSENTIAL STEPS

     l. Begin reading non-governmental analyses of the state of the nation.
        Specifically: political, Economic, social, military, and moral
        trends. Reading recommendations include:
          PERSONAL FINANCE newsletter
          901 N. Washington St. suite 605,                            
          Alexandria, Va 22314

          Gary North's REMNANT REVIEW.
          P. O. BOX 39800,
          Phoenix, AZ 85069

     2. Analyze the condition of your local state and community as to long
        term survivability in a crisis:
          Most favorable criteria are:
          a. low population density (50 people per sq. mile or less)
          b. High level of religious, moral character.
          c. Lack of highly unionized heavy industry, or welfare populous.
          d. Strong local autonomy with little attachment to federal funds.
          e. Diversified economy with an agricultural base.

     3. Make a series of decisions based upon your national and local
     assessment as what problems you most likely will encounter. Note: You
     cannot come to a proper design of a self-sufficient or survival
     residence unless you have determined what shortages, crises, or
     threats you face. The better your research, the more accurate your
     predictions will be.

     4. Read the SURVIVaL HOME MANUAL and study the essentials of survival
     residential design to determine what your present home lacks and what
     is available in new or remodeled survival construction.

     5. Determine, financially and security wise, whether you should remain
     in your present home and remodel, move and build or buy a more
     suitable home. Consider job, and/or commuting time. It is imperative
     that you do not destroy your income producing ability unless you have
     other means or opportunities to turn to which will survive most
     economic downturns. Don't be tricked into thinking you can go "live
     off the land". The capital required for machinery and non-growable
     necessities will require substantial monthly income.

     6. Start saving and begin a monthly procurement plan for acquiring the
     items listed in the 10 packs for survival. Do it each month--don't
     wait for enough money to accumulate for a one time purchase of
     everything--it may not be readily available then.

     The foregoing introductory material is essential in order to
appreciate the following survival design criteria. The quantity of
preparedness features I will describe may not be necessary in every case,
depending on the relative security of the location you choose to live in.
Remember, the more self-sufficient and secure the area in which you live,
the less it costs you to prepare for personal survival,,

PRIMARY FAULTS OF CONVENTIONAL HOUSING

     The following are the six essential liabilities of the conventional
residential structure:

     1. Lack of security (fire, intrusion, vandalism)
     2. Poor resistance to heat, cold, wind, and sun.
     3. Lack of storage facilities (food, dry goods, machinery etc).
     4. Poor floor plan efficiency (costly wasted space, lack of emergency
        accommodations)
     5. Single source of heat for space heating, water heating, ,@Ind  
        cooking.
     6. Single source of water and electrical power.

DESIGN CRITERIA

     In my actual design work, the most common concern expressed by the
wife of a client is that the home not look like a fortress or a bunker.
This is not only possible but preferable. There is no benefit in becoming
a known target for resentment during hard times. The best survival
residences are designed to look completely conventional both inside and
out, so that you may stay within the bounds of society without appearing
as an extremist and encouraging undue resentment.

     The properly designed survival residence has within its walls and
private recesses all the equipment and design technology that allows you
to maintain a nearly normal lifestyle throughout a crisis. This is
extremely important to the family man who must maintain his income during
hard times. He cannot afford to take time off from work to heat hot water
over a camp stove during an electrical outage or stand guard over his house
day and night when major civil disturbances occur.

     The following are some of the major design features of a survival
residence:

     l. Independent well water and/or water storage facilities integral
        with the home.
     2. Multi-fuel furnace (burns at least three different fuels)
     3. Reserve or standby electrical power.
     4. Multi-fuel cooking facilities, and water heating equipment
     5. Secure walls, doors, and windows with intrusion monitoring    
        equipment.
     6. Superior energy-conserving structural design utilizing solar and
        underground design where possible.
     7. Secret and semi-private storage facilities which include a fallout
        shelter.
     8. Maintenance and repair facilities with appropriate tools.
     9. Greenhouse and other food production facilities
     10. Internal communications equipment.

     If you are questioning the potential costliness of a full survival
residence, consider this: it is not intended to discourage you from acting
due to lack of sufficient funds, but rather to show you the importance of
ordering your financial priorities In order to start preparing in the most
critical areas first. In all cases, never place all of your available funds
into one, or even two areas at the exclusion of all others.

     If, in the final analysis, you find that not all of your
self-sufficiency preparations were utilized, you will have at least spent
many a restful night with the assurance that you have done everything
within your ability to prepare you and your family for realistic potential
difficulties.

     Both those who wish to relocate permanently and those who may simply
desire to construct a vacation retreat cabin elsewhere will need some
guidance as to the best areas for security: We have made available to our
clients the most comprehensive security map covering the entire United
States, both as to the most dangerous areas and the most secure areas. It
represents many years of research and analysis and may be ordered direct
from the architectural and planning division using the order form at the
end of this booklet.

FOOD PACK

     200 LBS/PERSON, HARD WINTER WHEAT
     50 LBS/PERSON,RICE
     50 LBS/PERSON, BEANS
     10 LBS/PERSON, HONEY
     25 LBS/PERSON, POWDERED MILK(non-instant type)
     6-months supply NORMAL CANNED GOODS AND BOTTLED FRUIT

     1-large bottle 1000mg VITAMIN C 1-large bottle MULTIPLE VITAMIN
     2-CLOVE GARLIC (nature's anti-biotic) (keep refrigerated)

     4-#10 can/person dehydrated fruits and vegetables (use for variety-not
       for bulk)
     SALT, PEPPER, SPICES
     OIL (keep refrigerated)

WATER PACK

     1- portable WATER WASHER filtering kit
          (from AMERICAN WATER PURIFICATION CO.
          1990 @Olivera Rd. Concord, Ca 94520)
     1/person WATER STRAW individual filter straw (from American Water
       @Purif.)
     1-PACK SCIENTIFIC FILTER PAPER (cone) (12v diameter papers)
     1/person 10 GALLON GLASS DISTILLED WATER BOTTLE. (date and seal with
       stopper and tape. Wrap on bottom and sides with dense foam carpet
       pad to protect against earthquake or jarring.
     1-Bottle HALAZONE TABS. or regular CHLORINE BLEACH for water      
       purification.

POWER PACK

     1-MOBILE, SELF-CONTAINED 3KW 120/220V GENERATOR (DIESEL OR      
       GASOLINE/GAS) with one month fuel supply in portable tanks
     1-12 volt AUTO BATTERY with carry strap trickle charger, and jumper
       cables and 12V light attachment.
     1-100 ft. 4-PLUG HEAVY DUTY EXTENSION CORD with built in light bulb
       (rough duty rated) in a "cage".
     2-HAND-OPERATED FLASHLIGHTS (item #605-771w695 from US GENERAL catalog
       100 General Place, @Jerico N.Y. 11753)
     2-NICAD FLASHLIGHTS (item # 852-5350W US GENERAL catalog)
     1-long range POLICE-TYPE FLASHLIGHT with extra bulbs.
     SUPPLY OF NICAD BATTERIES with CHARGER:
          8-"D" CELL
          4-"C" CELL
          16-"AA" CELL
          2-9V TRANSISTOR TYPE.

@MED PACK

     BLOOD PRESSURE GAUGE (electronic)
     STETHOSCOPE
     BANDAGE SCISSORS
     LONG TWEEZERS
     2-LOCKING FORCEPS (1-curved point)
     DISPOSABLE SCALPELS
     THERMOMETER (ORAL AND RECTAL)
     INFLATABLE SPLINTS
     BANDAGES elastic, self adhesive
          Band-aids
          large compress type with straps.
     SUTURES (dissolvable)
     cotton backed ADHESIVE TAPE
     GAUZE
     ALOE VERA BURN OINTMENT
     ANTI-BIOTIC OINTMENT
     ASPIRIN
     RUBBING ALCOHOL
     IPECAC SYRUP (to induce vomiting)
     CONTAINER OF STERILE WATER (1 qt)
     CLEAN ABSORBENT COTTON RAGS
     SOAP (liquid)
     Long Stemmed cotton swabs

TRANSPORTATION PACK

     1/person: 10 speed BICYCLE with heavy. duty tires, rack and carriers.
       lights
     1 emergency VEHICLE (recommend VW VANAGAN with trailer hitch, locking
       gas cap, and camper options. Install bike racks front and rear, and
       extra 30 gallon gas tank. Carry oil cans two flashlights
     EMERGENCY TOOL KIT: extra fan belts, metric wrenches and sockets, oil
       filter, air filter fuel filter, spark plugs, points, condenser,
       fuses, light bulbs, head light, tire pump, aerosol tire repair
       sealer, Jumper cables, tow cable w/hooks.
     INFLATABLE RAFT (4 man) with paddles.
     1-250cc MOTORCYCLE equipped for road and off road use. Add equipment
       and extra fuel tank carriers.

TRAVEL PACK

(THESE ITEMS SHOULD BE PACKED IN PORTABLE "DUFFLE BAGS" READY TO GO)

     1-qt WATER per person
     2-"energy bars" per person
     DEHYDRATED FOOD PACK for one week dried fruit, vegetables, meat flour,
        oil, salt, pepper, spices vitamins, honey,peanut butter crackers,
        protein powder, powder milk
     collapsible 5 ga. WATER CONTAINERS
     "WATER WASHER" FILTER
     lightweight COOK KIT large pot, dishes, spoons, forks knives, cups,
        non-stick skillet spatula, can opener, large spoon
     TOWELS
     2-water proof nylon tarps
     CHANGE OF CLOTHES FOR EACH PERSON
     COATS,
     1-thermal blanket
     1-SLEEPING BAG / person
     MATCHES, FIRE STARTER
     COMPASS, MAPS of areas of intended use
     2-RECHARGEABLE FLASHLIGHTS
     12v TROUBLE LIGHT w/@cig. liter plug
     FIRST AID KIT
     TOILET PAPER, soap
     1-Pocket knife
     1-FISHING KIT
     1-large BOWIE KNIFE (western cutlery) (perfectly weighted to serve as
       both fire knife and hatchet etc)
     1-small portable mt. climber's stove
     1-back pack with frame
     paper, pencil
     signaling Mirror
     1-manual flashlight
     WHISTLE , PORTABLE CABLE SAW
     small bottle of bleach, Insect Repellent.
     MAGNIFYING GLASS
     100 ft. 1/2 dia. GOLDLINE ROPE,
     2 pulleys
     50 ft. nylon "shroudline" cord
     .22 caliber pistol w/ 500 @rds. ammo.

COMMUNICATIONS PACK

     MULTI-BAND RECEIVER/SCANNER
     1-CITIZENS BAND TRANSCEIVER
     2- 3 CHANNEL PORTABLE TRANSCEIVERS rechargeable batteries
     PORTABLE POWER PACK, ANTENNAS
     1-SMALL PORTABLE TELEVISION (battery operated)

EQUIPMENT PACK

     1-GRIND ALL Grinder(for wheat, corn beans, peas, nuts etc.)    
       RAM PRODUCTS 765 So. University Ave. Provo, Ut. 84601  
     1-GRAIN COUNTRY bread mixer. FOOD SCIENCE @CORP. 95 NO. 200 E.    
       American Fork, Ut 84003
     1- @VICTORIO STRAINER (@Vitantonio Corp @Willoughby, Ohio 44090)
     1-Hand operated CAN OPENER
     1-STEAM CANNER with canning bottles w/Lids and rings for two seasons
     CUTLERY: high quality KNIVES-
          a. peeler/filet knife
          b. pairing knife (short small)
          c. long Slicing knife.
     1-portable ELECTRIC ICEBOX 12V.
          @KOOLATRON industries limited
          56 Harvester Ave. Batavia N.Y. 14020
     Kerosene LAMP/HEATER by ALADDIN
     TWO BURNER KEROSENE OR PROPANE STOVE with one month fuel supply
     HAND OPERATED CLOTHES WRINGER.
     TREADLE SEWING MACHINE or treadle attachment for your electric  
        machine.
     PORTABLE ELECTRIC HOT PLATE
     FIRE EXTINGUISHER (portable)

DEFENSE PACK

     .22 cal.PISTOL (9-shot revolver or 15 shot Auto) w/ 1000 rds. ammo.
     .22 cal. RIFLE w/1000 rds. ammo.
      45 cal. auto PISTOL w/ 100 rds. am~o.
     .223 RIFLE (Mini14 by RUGER) w/ 500 rds. ammo.
     2- canisters of AEROSOL MACE
     1-POCKET KNIFE 1- BOWIE KNIFE

TOOL PACK

     1- 250 amp PORTABLE ARC WELDER
     PELLETIZED OXY-ACETYLENE TORCH
     PROPANE TORCH w/SPARK LIGHTER
     SOLDER/FLUX (electrical and non)
     ALLEN WRENCH SET
     NUT DRIVER SET
     TAP & DIE SET (national course,fine)
     SOCKET SET & RATCHET HANDLE, @EXTENS.
     CHANNEL LOCK PLIERS
     2-ADJUSTABLE "CRESCENT" WRENCHES
     NEEDLE NOSE PLIERS WITH WIRE CUT.
     VISE GRIP PLIERS WITH NARROW JAW
     METAL CHISEL
     WOOD CHISEL SET
     METAL PUNCH/DRIFT
     TIN SNIPS
     CLAW HAMMER
     SMALL, LARGE SCREWDRIVERS
     SMALL, LARGE PHILLIPS SCREWDRIVERS
     HAND OPERATED TWIST DRILL
     AUGER EXPANSION BIT WITH BRACE
     HACK SAW
     BOW SAW
     HANDSAW (10 PT TEETH)
     LARGE PRY BAR/WRECKING BAR
     AX
     HATCHET
     SMALL BLOCK AND TACKLE or 'come-a-long" hand operated winch.
     GLUE assorted
     NAILS, NUTS, BOLTS, SCREWS
     electric MULTI METER,  
     110 circuit test light BARTER ITEMS

BARTER

   These items generally meet all of the following criteria for Barter

l. High consumer demand
2. Not easily home manufactured
3. Durable in storage
4. Divisible in small quantities
5. Authenticity easily recognizable

     LIQUID DETERGENT, LAUNDRY
     DETERGENT
     RUBBING ALCOHOL, BLEACH
     TOOTHBRUSHES
     RAZOR BLADES
     TOILET PAPER
     ALUMINUM FOIL
     WRITING PAPER, TYPING PAPER,
     PENS,
     PENCILS, ERASERS
     SHOELACES, STRING, CORD, ROPE
     FISHING LINE
     INSECT REPELLENT, WATER
     REPELLENT
     PAINT, VARNISH
     MATCHES
     WATCHES
     TAPE
     LIGHT BULBS
     NEEDLES, THREAD, ZIPPERS, BUTTONS
     ASPIRIN, VITAMINS, OTHER DRUGS
     SEEDS, GRAIN, SUGAR,
     COFFEE, LIQUOR, CIGARETTES
     ANTI-BIOTICS, BURN OINTMENTS
     SAFETY PINS
     MANUAL CAN OPENER
     KNIVES
     CANNING JARS, LIDS, RINGS
     SHOES, BOOTS, SOCKS, NYLON
     STOCKINGS
     UNDERWEAR, WINTER CLOTHES
     COATS
     BLANKETS
     HAND GUNS, RIFLES,AMMUNITION
     FUELS (ALL TYPES)
     QUARTS OF MULTI-VIS MOTOR OIL
     ANTI-FREEZE
     WIRE
     GLUES
     BOLTS, SCREWS, NAILS

Sunday, December 16, 2012

Making Maple Syrup


Several species of maple trees grow in North America. Though all
produce sap suitable for the production of maple syrup, two species
of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and black maple (A. nigrum), are the
source of sap for most commercial maple production. Sap suitable for
conversion into syrup may also be obtained from red and silver
maples, though such sap usually has a lower sugar content.

Sugar maple is a common tree throughout most of eastern North
America. In addition to its use for sap production, sugar maple is a
valuable tree for lumber and is used extensively in fine furniture,
It has been widely planted as a shade and ornamental tree.

EQUIPMENT NECESSARY

Maple syrup can be produced with a minimum of equipment, but a few
standard items increase the efficiency of the operation and the
quality of the product:

1. A drill with a 7/16- or 1/2-inch bit for drilling tap-holes in
trees.

2. A metal or plastic collection spout for each tap-hole.

3. A collection container (bucket or plastic bag) or tubing line for
each tap-hole.

4. A large pan and a heat source for boiling down the sap. The size
needed will depend on how much sap you intend to handle.

5. A large-scale thermometer calibrated at least 15 degrees above
the boiling point of water.

6. Wool, orlon or other filters for filtering finished syrup while
hot.

7. Storage facilities and containers for the finished syrup.

TAPPING THE TREE

To obtain the earliest runs of sap, tapping should be completed by
the middle of February. Minimal trunk diameter for trees suitable
for tapping is 10 inches at 4 feet above the ground.

To tap a tree, select a spot on the trunk of the tree 2 to 4 feet
above the ground in an area that appears to contain sound wood. At
this point, drill a hole approximately 2 to 2.5 inches deep into the
wood. Then insert a collection spout (spile) and tap lightly into
the tree, and attach a bucket or plastic bag or a tubing line to the
spout. Open buckets used for sap collection should be covered to
keep out rainwater, debris, insects and other foreign materials.

COLLECTING THE SAP

Sap flow in maple trees will not occur every day throughout the
tapping season. It occurs when a rapid warming trend in early to
midmorning follows a cool (below freezing) night. Thus, the amount
of sap produced varies from day to day. Normally, a single tap-hole
produces from a quart to a gallon of sap per flow period (from a few
hours to a day or more), with a seasonal accumulation of 10 to 12
gallons per tap-hole likely.

To produce high quality syrup, sap collections should be made as
required, not exceeding every two or three days. If this is not
possible, collections obtained from prolonged flow periods should be
stored and processed separately. During periods of rather low
temperatures and under favorable storage conditions, sap may be kept
four or five days without reducing syrup quality.

The amount of sap required to produce a gallon of maple syrup
varies, depending on its sugar concentration. Sap averages
approximately 2 percent sugar. At this concentration, 43 gallons of
sap are required to produce 1 gallon of syrup. If the sap contains a
higher sugar concentration, less sap will be required

Producing maple syrup is essentially a matter of concentrating the
sugar solution to a predetermined level through evaporation. Heat is
used to concentrate the sap and to develop the characteristic maple
color and flavor that make maple syrup so highly desirable.

In large commercial operations, a continuous feed evaporation
process is used. That is, the evaporation pan is arranged so that
sap may be continuously added and syrup drawn off. In smaller
operations, a "batch" approach is used. The evaporation pan is
filled with sap and sap is added as necessary to replace that lost
by evaporation. When a suitable amount of concentrated sap is
present, the pan is "finished-off" to produce syrup of the correct
density.

To begin evaporation, fill the evaporating container (preferably a
large shallow pan) with sap. Begin heating the sap to the boiling
point, taking care not to burn or scorch the sap. (A Teflon-coated
pan is ideal.) As evaporation lowers the level of sap in the pan,
add more sap. Continue this process until most of the sap in the pan
is highly concentrated and the boiling point of the sap begins to
rise above the boiling point of water.

Throughout this process, it may be necessary occasionally to skim
the surface of the boiling liquid to remove surface foam and other
materials. Finished syrup boils at 7 degrees above the boiling point
of water. As the temperature of the boiling sap approaches this
point, boiling should be carefully controlled to prevent burning and
overheating.

Once the desired boiling point has been reached, the syrup is ready
for filtering and packaging. Hot syrup should be filtered through a
suitable filter of wool or orlon to remove suspended particles, such
as sugar sand, and improve the appearance of the syrup. After
filtering, the syrup should be packaged, also while hot. A
temperature of at least 180 degrees F is necessary to prevent
spoiling while in storage.

OTHER MAPLE PRODUCTS

Maple syrup may be used as is, of course, or it may be converted
into other highly desirable products. Maple sugar, maple candy and
maple fudge are just a few of the many other maple products.
Basically, these are made by concentrating finished syrup to a
greater density and stirring the highly concentrated syrup. Recipes
for a variety of maple products may be obtained by contacting the
local county Extension office. (or by writing to the Department of
Forestry at Michigan State University, or some of the other main
Maple Sugaring States).

Maple syrup and sugar are among the oldest agricultural commodities
produced in the United States. Native Americans are generally
credited with discovering how to convert maple sap into maple syrup.
The importance of maple products for local trade was established
well before the arrival of the first European settlers in North
America. Maple syrup production is confined to the northeastern
portion of the United States, with the largest amounts produced in
Vermont and New York. Until rather recently, maple syrup and sugar
have been strictly a "sideline" farm crop; however, the production
of maple syrup and other maple products is often a full-time
operation. Maple syrup is one agricultural crop in which there is no
surplus. In fact, demand far exceeds the available supply. The
industry is not expanding, even though less than 1 percent of the
potential resource is being used.

I have been told that the Pacific Bigleaf Maple in the PNW will also
produce Maple Syrup, but the sugar content is lower and therefore
larger amounts of sap will be needed, maybe up to double of that
from the Sugar Maples. I think it is something like a 40 to 1 or a
50 to one for the Birches.

Other links:
http://www.massmaple.org/myo.html (this one says to use elderberry..DONT!!!!! Elderberry bark, leaves and seeds are TOXIC!)



tenzicut