Sunday, January 6, 2013

Knife Sharpening for The Best Edge Ever


Every knife needs sharpening from time to time. With the following instructions, you will be using the safest and most effective method of sharpening your knife. Never sharpen your knife on a power-driven grinding wheel. This can burn the temper from your blade, which will make the edge brittle and possibly chip or crack.

Knife Sharpening Equipment

For best results, use a sharpening stone. For quick touch-ups on a blade that is not too dull, use our fine grit
diamond sharpening stone or our Arkansas Washita honing stone. For a more thorough sharpening on a blade
that is dull, use the coarse grit stone first, then go to the fine grit stone or stones. Diamond sharpening stones
may be used dry or wet, but wet is recommended. When using them wet, use water, not oil, as a lubricant.
Washita stones should always be used wet. You may choose to use your stand-alone Washita stone (not
attached to the Tri-Stone system) with honing oil as a lubricant. Once you do this, water will no longer work well
as a lubricant and you will need to use kerosene or honing oil to keep your stone clean.

Types of sharpeners
► Diamond Stone Sharpeners
► A metal or composite base with an outer layer of micron-sized diamonds bonded to a metal surface.
Many diamond sharpeners have special surface holes to prevent "filing build-up." Fast-acting and very
effective. Use care to avoid excess pressure.
► Natural Stone Sharpeners
► Arkansas natural stones are genuine silica "Novaculite", indigenous to Arkansas. They come in different
grits and have abrasive properties well suited for knife sharpening.

Types of sharpening fluid
Some people recommend sharpening dry and cleaning the sharpener as needed. Our recommendation is to
sharpen wet because it keeps the pores of the sharpener clean, dissipates frictional heat and facilitates smooth
sharpening action.

Diamond Sharpeners: Can be used wet or dry. If using a diamond sharpener wet, use water or water-based
honing oil, not petroleum based oil.

Natural Sharpening Stones: Can be used wet or dry. Water, water-based honing oil or petroleum-based honing oil
can be used. Be generous with the honing fluid. Use enough to keep a pool visible on the stone while you are
sharpening. When the pool gets murky, pat or lightly wipe up with a rag and add more fluid.

*Note: Once you use oil on a natural or aluminum oxide stone, it is difficult to change back to using water. Treat
the decision to use oil as a permanent one. After every use, use a little extra fluid and wipe the sharpener clean
and dry. Clean sharpening stone periodically to eliminate debris build-up (swarf). Glossy grey streaks indicate
debris build-up. - If you sharpen with water or water-based honing oil, clean sharpening stone with soapy water. -
If you sharpen with petroleum-based honing oil, clean sharpening stone with kerosene or more honing oil. Scrub
with your finger or a mild brush, such as a used toothbrush

Practice sharpening on a non-valuable knife

Through the process of sharpening, scratches may occur beyond the edge of the blade. If you are new to
sharpening, you may wish to practice on an old or inexpensive knife first to get the feel for avoiding unwanted
scratches.Sharpening straight blades (non-serrated)
Inspect your blade condition by holding the knife, edge up, and looking down the length of the blade— Look for
nicks or flats spots reflected by light. Is the blade nicked or extremely dull? Start with Stage 1, Coarse Grit Stone.
Is the blade somewhat dull or just needs a touch-up? Start with Stage 2 or Stage 3.

Stage 1: heavy sharpening—coarse grit sharpener
For extremely dull blades, inconsistent edge, or nicks/dull spots. This stage is the "rough cut" to remove
inconsistencies in the blade edge and take it from very dull to sharp, but not finished. Buck's Diamond Sharpening
Stone, Model 1327, has coarse 325 grit, suitable for stage 1 sharpening.

Sharpening fluid

► Diamond Sharpeners: Can be used dry or wet. If lubrication is desired, use water or water-based honing
oil, not petroleum based oil.
► Natural Sharpening Stones: Can be used dry or wet. Water, water-based honing oil or petroleum-based
honing oil can be used (see "Knife Sharpening Notes" for recommendations).
Hold the correct grind angle
Ideally, follow the grind and edge angle as they were when new. Scratches on the blade happen when
sharpening. Use them to measure if you're angled too high or too flat against the stone, or if you're skipping off
the edge of the stone
The angle on a Buck Knife is ground to 13-16 degrees per
side (see illustrations). If you hold the knife against the stone
to cut evenly across the edge grind, you will produce an
edge with a similar angle. If you hold the blade at too high of
an angle, the resulting edge will lose some slicing ability (but
will stand up better to chopping). A good rule of thumb is to
hold the blade so the back of it is about one blade width up
from flat on the stone.

Maintain contact with the sharpener
Stroke the blade across the sharpener with even control. Too much pressure
will crush or remove the grit from a diamond sharpener. It will also force a
thicker burr on the edge, which is harder to remove or which can break off,
creating new flat spots on the edge. Your stroke can be straight or circular,
from "hilt to tip" –or- "tip to hilt," whichever is more comfortable. With most
portable sharpeners, you need to stroke in a straight direction. The blade edge
should face in the same direction as you stroke, so you move metal away from
the edge. (Stroking toward the edge will create a thicker burr on the edge, the
same as using too much pressure, with the same undesirable results).
When stroking the blade across the sharpener, as you work the length of the edge (from hilt to tip), do not
let the tip of the blade skip off the edge, or end, of the sharpener. This results in a rounded tip or
unwanted scratches on the side of the blade. Alternate blade sides. Do the same number of strokes on
each side of the blade. If you do 15-20 strokes on one side, do 15-20 on the other side. Don't alternate
sides with each stroke, or you won't get a burr. As you feel a burr developing on one side, switch to the
other side and check that the burr is making the same progress on the other side.
For circular sharpening, keep the blade on the surface and
use an easy, clockwise motion with the edge facing right,
until the desired sharpness is achieved. It is ideal to achieve
the original factory edge.
Turn the blade over. Use an easy, counter-clockwise motion
with the edge facing left. Try to spend the same amount of
time on each side.
Work the "nicks" separately. If there is a nick on the edge,
you can work just the area around the nick evenly, side-toside.
Once the nick appears to be gone, go back to working
the entire length of the edge.
Inspect the "evenness" of your edge. The object is to have an even edge on both sides. Move to the next
step when you feel the burr from hilt to tip on one side AND you see no nicks or dull spots along the edge.
Pat or wipe your knife dry. Be careful—the burr can cut just like a sharpened edge. Move on to Stage 2
for working the edge.
Stage 2: medium or final sharpening—fine grit sharpenerFor typical dull blades - OR - continuing
from Stage 1. This stage removes rough scratches or is an appropriate starting point for blades that are
somewhat, but not overly, dull. Buck's Diamond Sharpening Stone, Model 1328, has fine 750 grit, suitable for

Stage 2.
Sharpening fluid
► Diamond sharpeners: Can be used dry or wet. If lubrication is desired, use water or water-based honing
oil, not petroleum based oil.
► Natural Sharpening Stones: Can be used dry or wet. Water, water-based honing oil or petroleum-based
honing oil can be used (see "Knife Sharpening Notes" for recommendations).
Sharpen the edge, following the same steps as in Stage 1. You can achieve a good, sharp edge and finish at this
stage without going on to Stage 3. To do so, hone with light, single strokes, side-to-side, until you feel no burr on
either side. To fine-tune the edge or smooth "sharpening scratches", skip this step, go to Stage 3.
Stage 3: fine sharpening—natural stone

For slightly dull blades - OR - continuing from step 2. This step removes any remaining burr and puts a burnish on
the blade edge. Buck's "Arkansas Washita Honing Stone" has fine 600 grit that is suitable for Stage 3.
Sharpening fluid

► Natural sharpening stones can be used dry or wet, but wet is recommended. Water, water-based honing
oil or petroleum-based honing oil keeps the pores of the stone clean, dissipates frictional heat and
ensures smooth sharpening action. Once you use oil on a natural or aluminum oxide stone, it is difficult to
change back to using water. Treat the decision to use oil as a permanent one.
► Be generous with the honing fluid. Use enough to keep a pool visible on the stone while you are
sharpening. When the pool gets murky, pat or lightly wipe up with a rag and add more fluid.
Use the same stroking motion as described in Stage 1. Repeat until scratches from the previous grit stone are
gone. You should still feel a burr, but it should be smaller/finer. Once you clean all the scratches off the edge from
the previous grit, use light, single strokes side-to-side. Make one stroke from hilt to tip, then turn the knife to the
other side and stroke once from hilt to tip. Repeat this several times until you can't feel any burr on either side of
the edge, from hilt to tip. The knife should be razor sharp at this point. If the knife fails to cut as expected, you
may need to start again from Stage two. Remember, if you use too much pressure against the stone, you will
raise a thick burr instead of removing it.

Sharpening Serrated Blades

Sharpening serrated blades and gut hooks requires a different
technique and different style sharpener. Do not use a flat sharpening
stone. Buck's Diamond Taper Sharpener or Diamond Pocket
Sharpener is the right tool for this job. Even a taper sharpener cannot
create the same kind of edge that was originally on the knife. This
makes it difficult to achieve better than a "serviceable" edge on these
features, and that should be your objective—not achieving
perfection. Because of their shapes, these features are more easily
distorted through sharpening than a blade edge. You may wish to
consider sharpening serrations and gut hooks only when dull spots
are visible

Serrations have a grind on one side of the blade only. Sharpen the grind
side only. Hold the sharpener at the angle that matches the original edge
angle. Put the pointed, narrow end of the sharpener up against the
serration and stroke the sharpener into the serration—away from the
edge of the blade, toward the spine. Stop stroking when the width of the
taper sharpener gets to the same width as the serration (do not enlarge
the width of the serration). Rotate (spin) the sharpener as you go for
even, consistent sharpening. Check progress and continue until you feel
a very slight burr.

Author unknown email glangston@gmail.com to claim ownership.

Knife Sharpening for The Best Edge Ever


Every knife needs sharpening from time to time. With the following instructions, you will be using the safest and most effective method of sharpening your knife. Never sharpen your knife on a power-driven grinding wheel. This can burn the temper from your blade, which will make the edge brittle and possibly chip or crack.

Knife Sharpening Equipment

For best results, use a sharpening stone. For quick touch-ups on a blade that is not too dull, use our fine grit
diamond sharpening stone or our Arkansas Washita honing stone. For a more thorough sharpening on a blade
that is dull, use the coarse grit stone first, then go to the fine grit stone or stones. Diamond sharpening stones
may be used dry or wet, but wet is recommended. When using them wet, use water, not oil, as a lubricant.
Washita stones should always be used wet. You may choose to use your stand-alone Washita stone (not
attached to the Tri-Stone system) with honing oil as a lubricant. Once you do this, water will no longer work well
as a lubricant and you will need to use kerosene or honing oil to keep your stone clean.

Types of sharpeners
► Diamond Stone Sharpeners
► A metal or composite base with an outer layer of micron-sized diamonds bonded to a metal surface.
Many diamond sharpeners have special surface holes to prevent "filing build-up." Fast-acting and very
effective. Use care to avoid excess pressure.
► Natural Stone Sharpeners
► Arkansas natural stones are genuine silica "Novaculite", indigenous to Arkansas. They come in different
grits and have abrasive properties well suited for knife sharpening.

Types of sharpening fluid
Some people recommend sharpening dry and cleaning the sharpener as needed. Our recommendation is to
sharpen wet because it keeps the pores of the sharpener clean, dissipates frictional heat and facilitates smooth
sharpening action.

Diamond Sharpeners: Can be used wet or dry. If using a diamond sharpener wet, use water or water-based
honing oil, not petroleum based oil.

Natural Sharpening Stones: Can be used wet or dry. Water, water-based honing oil or petroleum-based honing oil
can be used. Be generous with the honing fluid. Use enough to keep a pool visible on the stone while you are
sharpening. When the pool gets murky, pat or lightly wipe up with a rag and add more fluid.

*Note: Once you use oil on a natural or aluminum oxide stone, it is difficult to change back to using water. Treat
the decision to use oil as a permanent one. After every use, use a little extra fluid and wipe the sharpener clean
and dry. Clean sharpening stone periodically to eliminate debris build-up (swarf). Glossy grey streaks indicate
debris build-up. - If you sharpen with water or water-based honing oil, clean sharpening stone with soapy water. -
If you sharpen with petroleum-based honing oil, clean sharpening stone with kerosene or more honing oil. Scrub
with your finger or a mild brush, such as a used toothbrush

Practice sharpening on a non-valuable knife

Through the process of sharpening, scratches may occur beyond the edge of the blade. If you are new to
sharpening, you may wish to practice on an old or inexpensive knife first to get the feel for avoiding unwanted
scratches.Sharpening straight blades (non-serrated)
Inspect your blade condition by holding the knife, edge up, and looking down the length of the blade— Look for
nicks or flats spots reflected by light. Is the blade nicked or extremely dull? Start with Stage 1, Coarse Grit Stone.
Is the blade somewhat dull or just needs a touch-up? Start with Stage 2 or Stage 3.

Stage 1: heavy sharpening—coarse grit sharpener
For extremely dull blades, inconsistent edge, or nicks/dull spots. This stage is the "rough cut" to remove
inconsistencies in the blade edge and take it from very dull to sharp, but not finished. Buck's Diamond Sharpening
Stone, Model 1327, has coarse 325 grit, suitable for stage 1 sharpening.

Sharpening fluid

► Diamond Sharpeners: Can be used dry or wet. If lubrication is desired, use water or water-based honing
oil, not petroleum based oil.
► Natural Sharpening Stones: Can be used dry or wet. Water, water-based honing oil or petroleum-based
honing oil can be used (see "Knife Sharpening Notes" for recommendations).
Hold the correct grind angle
Ideally, follow the grind and edge angle as they were when new. Scratches on the blade happen when
sharpening. Use them to measure if you're angled too high or too flat against the stone, or if you're skipping off
the edge of the stone
The angle on a Buck Knife is ground to 13-16 degrees per
side (see illustrations). If you hold the knife against the stone
to cut evenly across the edge grind, you will produce an
edge with a similar angle. If you hold the blade at too high of
an angle, the resulting edge will lose some slicing ability (but
will stand up better to chopping). A good rule of thumb is to
hold the blade so the back of it is about one blade width up
from flat on the stone.

Maintain contact with the sharpener
Stroke the blade across the sharpener with even control. Too much pressure
will crush or remove the grit from a diamond sharpener. It will also force a
thicker burr on the edge, which is harder to remove or which can break off,
creating new flat spots on the edge. Your stroke can be straight or circular,
from "hilt to tip" –or- "tip to hilt," whichever is more comfortable. With most
portable sharpeners, you need to stroke in a straight direction. The blade edge
should face in the same direction as you stroke, so you move metal away from
the edge. (Stroking toward the edge will create a thicker burr on the edge, the
same as using too much pressure, with the same undesirable results).
When stroking the blade across the sharpener, as you work the length of the edge (from hilt to tip), do not
let the tip of the blade skip off the edge, or end, of the sharpener. This results in a rounded tip or
unwanted scratches on the side of the blade. Alternate blade sides. Do the same number of strokes on
each side of the blade. If you do 15-20 strokes on one side, do 15-20 on the other side. Don't alternate
sides with each stroke, or you won't get a burr. As you feel a burr developing on one side, switch to the
other side and check that the burr is making the same progress on the other side.
For circular sharpening, keep the blade on the surface and
use an easy, clockwise motion with the edge facing right,
until the desired sharpness is achieved. It is ideal to achieve
the original factory edge.
Turn the blade over. Use an easy, counter-clockwise motion
with the edge facing left. Try to spend the same amount of
time on each side.
Work the "nicks" separately. If there is a nick on the edge,
you can work just the area around the nick evenly, side-toside.
Once the nick appears to be gone, go back to working
the entire length of the edge.
Inspect the "evenness" of your edge. The object is to have an even edge on both sides. Move to the next
step when you feel the burr from hilt to tip on one side AND you see no nicks or dull spots along the edge.
Pat or wipe your knife dry. Be careful—the burr can cut just like a sharpened edge. Move on to Stage 2
for working the edge.
Stage 2: medium or final sharpening—fine grit sharpenerFor typical dull blades - OR - continuing
from Stage 1. This stage removes rough scratches or is an appropriate starting point for blades that are
somewhat, but not overly, dull. Buck's Diamond Sharpening Stone, Model 1328, has fine 750 grit, suitable for

Stage 2.
Sharpening fluid
► Diamond sharpeners: Can be used dry or wet. If lubrication is desired, use water or water-based honing
oil, not petroleum based oil.
► Natural Sharpening Stones: Can be used dry or wet. Water, water-based honing oil or petroleum-based
honing oil can be used (see "Knife Sharpening Notes" for recommendations).
Sharpen the edge, following the same steps as in Stage 1. You can achieve a good, sharp edge and finish at this
stage without going on to Stage 3. To do so, hone with light, single strokes, side-to-side, until you feel no burr on
either side. To fine-tune the edge or smooth "sharpening scratches", skip this step, go to Stage 3.
Stage 3: fine sharpening—natural stone

For slightly dull blades - OR - continuing from step 2. This step removes any remaining burr and puts a burnish on
the blade edge. Buck's "Arkansas Washita Honing Stone" has fine 600 grit that is suitable for Stage 3.
Sharpening fluid

► Natural sharpening stones can be used dry or wet, but wet is recommended. Water, water-based honing
oil or petroleum-based honing oil keeps the pores of the stone clean, dissipates frictional heat and
ensures smooth sharpening action. Once you use oil on a natural or aluminum oxide stone, it is difficult to
change back to using water. Treat the decision to use oil as a permanent one.
► Be generous with the honing fluid. Use enough to keep a pool visible on the stone while you are
sharpening. When the pool gets murky, pat or lightly wipe up with a rag and add more fluid.
Use the same stroking motion as described in Stage 1. Repeat until scratches from the previous grit stone are
gone. You should still feel a burr, but it should be smaller/finer. Once you clean all the scratches off the edge from
the previous grit, use light, single strokes side-to-side. Make one stroke from hilt to tip, then turn the knife to the
other side and stroke once from hilt to tip. Repeat this several times until you can't feel any burr on either side of
the edge, from hilt to tip. The knife should be razor sharp at this point. If the knife fails to cut as expected, you
may need to start again from Stage two. Remember, if you use too much pressure against the stone, you will
raise a thick burr instead of removing it.

Sharpening Serrated Blades

Sharpening serrated blades and gut hooks requires a different
technique and different style sharpener. Do not use a flat sharpening
stone. Buck's Diamond Taper Sharpener or Diamond Pocket
Sharpener is the right tool for this job. Even a taper sharpener cannot
create the same kind of edge that was originally on the knife. This
makes it difficult to achieve better than a "serviceable" edge on these
features, and that should be your objective—not achieving
perfection. Because of their shapes, these features are more easily
distorted through sharpening than a blade edge. You may wish to
consider sharpening serrations and gut hooks only when dull spots
are visible

Serrations have a grind on one side of the blade only. Sharpen the grind
side only. Hold the sharpener at the angle that matches the original edge
angle. Put the pointed, narrow end of the sharpener up against the
serration and stroke the sharpener into the serration—away from the
edge of the blade, toward the spine. Stop stroking when the width of the
taper sharpener gets to the same width as the serration (do not enlarge
the width of the serration). Rotate (spin) the sharpener as you go for
even, consistent sharpening. Check progress and continue until you feel
a very slight burr.

Author unknown email glangston@gmail.com to claim ownership.

Thursday, January 3, 2013

Emergency Anti-dote


                 POISONING & UNIVERSAL ANTIDOTE.

Many children accidentally absorb poison,yet few parents know of
this simple universal antidote. You should have it home.
2 part of wood charcoal pulverized (you can also use burned
toast,yet the toast must be totally carbonized and pulverized)

Then add 1 part of magnesia milk &; 1 part of very strong tea.

If your child has swallowed a toxic product,give him as FAST as
you can in a little bit of water at least 2 table spoon of this
mixture.

How does it work: If the poison is metallic or alkaline,the
tannic acid contained in the tea will neutralize it.If the poison
is acid,the magnesia will neutralize it.The wood charcoal even at
very little dose,can absorb very strong quantities of toxic.

When you have given the antidote &; call doctor or poison control,
you have 3 things to do;

1:   Discover the nature of the poison, keep the bottle or the
     box so that the doctor can quickly identify it.

2:   Except in case where the child had taken soap or some
     alkaline presenting burns around the mouth, make him vomit.
     To do this; the best procedure is to give him,a glass of
     milk in which you have mix a full broken egg (no shell).

When he has drunk this mixture,trust one finger in his throat.

3:   Give him another antidote mixture dose.


4:   Act quickly,some toxic can bring death in 5 min. Usually the
     doctor is not equipped to treat poisoning home, so bring the
     child to the nearest hospital,after having used the
Universal Antidote.


Any other tips please send them  up via e-mail
at richard@io.org  thanks

Emergency Anti-dote


                 POISONING & UNIVERSAL ANTIDOTE.

Many children accidentally absorb poison,yet few parents know of
this simple universal antidote. You should have it home.
2 part of wood charcoal pulverized (you can also use burned
toast,yet the toast must be totally carbonized and pulverized)

Then add 1 part of magnesia milk &; 1 part of very strong tea.

If your child has swallowed a toxic product,give him as FAST as
you can in a little bit of water at least 2 table spoon of this
mixture.

How does it work: If the poison is metallic or alkaline,the
tannic acid contained in the tea will neutralize it.If the poison
is acid,the magnesia will neutralize it.The wood charcoal even at
very little dose,can absorb very strong quantities of toxic.

When you have given the antidote &; call doctor or poison control,
you have 3 things to do;

1:   Discover the nature of the poison, keep the bottle or the
     box so that the doctor can quickly identify it.

2:   Except in case where the child had taken soap or some
     alkaline presenting burns around the mouth, make him vomit.
     To do this; the best procedure is to give him,a glass of
     milk in which you have mix a full broken egg (no shell).

When he has drunk this mixture,trust one finger in his throat.

3:   Give him another antidote mixture dose.


4:   Act quickly,some toxic can bring death in 5 min. Usually the
     doctor is not equipped to treat poisoning home, so bring the
     child to the nearest hospital,after having used the
Universal Antidote.


Any other tips please send them  up via e-mail
at richard@io.org  thanks

Wednesday, January 2, 2013

Backpacking Stoves by Ron Blackwood


Backpacking Stoves

Ninpo Library November 1995

Ron Blackwood

Basic Considerations: Before purchasing any stove, first decide how it will be
used. If you are a backpacker, you should be very concerned with weight. Every
pound you put in your pack will feel like ten pounds on the trail. If you are
inclined to go to high altitudes (over 10,000 feet) or low temperatures you will
want a stove that works well under those conditions. As we become more
environmentally conscious, we should consider the effects of non-refillable fuel
containers.

Fuel: Before deciding on the stove that's right for you, you should look at the
types of fuel that are available in your area. There are three types of fuel
available: White Gas; Pressurized Gas (Propane or Butane); and Kerosene.

White Gas is by far the hottest burning fuel and is available at most outdoor
equipment stores. It burns hot and efficiently in cold weather and at high
altitudes. Additionally it is environmentally more sound than pressurized fuel
in canisters that cannot be refilled.

Propane/Butane is easier to use since you don't have to pump (pressurize) the
stove to get it started. It's lightweight and there is no fuel to handle.

Kerosene is the cheapest, most common fuel around. It doesn't burn as hot as
white gas or propane/butane, so cooking time is increased. Kerosene has a very
disagreeable odor when it burns. It also burns dirtier, so you will be cleaning
the stove more frequently

Stoves: Generally stoves fall into one of two categories. The pressurized gas
cans are usually twist and light, where you twist the canister onto the stove,
turn on the gas and light the burner in accordance with the manufacturer'
instructions. White gas and Kerosene stoves usually require a bit of pumping to
build up pressure in the fuel tank. These stoves seem to be more reliable in
cold temperatures as well as being a better choice environmentally (no empty
canister to discard).

Pump Stoves: MSR WhisperLite: White Gas - This is one of the best stoves around
and is my personal favorite. It features a separate fuel tank that allows you to
isolate the burner with a windscreen for greater fuel efficiency and a hotter-
burning stove. Its low center of gravity provides a stable base for your cooking
pot. Easy to prime, light and quiet, the WhisperLite has a reputation for being
one of the easiest stoves to repair in the field. (12 oz. without fuel) Cost:
$49.

MSR WhisperLite Internationale: Same as above but this stove will also burn
White Gas, commercial grade jet fuel or kerosene. (12 oz without fuel) Cost $57.

MSR XGKII: Same features as above but will burn White Gas, kerosene, diesel or
gasoline. It was designed for high altitudes and sub-zero conditions. (14 oz
without fuel) Cost $80.

Optimus Climber 123: White Gas - This stove is also very reliable. The fuel tank
is very small and it is prudent to carry additional fuel. Use an eyedropper for
priming or purchase the optional pump. (19.5 oz without fuel) Cost $75.
Pressurized Canister Stoves: EPIgas: Propane/Butane Mix - This mixed gas stove
ensures high performance at altitude and low temperatures. The canisters come in
different sizes and are interchangeable between stove models. The Micro stove is
very light (11 oz with canister) Cost $37 and the backpacking stove with
windscreen weights only 20 oz with canister. Cost $34.

Gaz Bluet: Propane or Butane - The multi-use model 206 stove weighs 16.7 oz with
canister. Cost $32. The high performance 470 weighs 30 oz with canister. Cost
$34. The Ultra S470 features Piezo automatic ignition for fast starts. It weighs
31 oz with canister. Cost $43.

Coleman Peak 1 Multi-Fuel: White Gas, Coleman fuel or kerosene. This stove
pressurizes well, using the Coleman classic pump system and has one of the
shortest pre-heating times of any white gas stove. It requires no priming and is
self-cleaning. 27.5 oz with fuel. Cost $79

I hope that the foregoing has helped you decide the type of stove that is best
for you. If you need any advice or counsel, please feel free to contact me.

Ron Blackwood is a Shidoshi teaching in Irvine, CA. He is an avid shooter, SCUBA
diver, backpacker & rock climber. He can be reached at (714) 559-1766 or by E-
mail at OHOKO@AOL.COM .

Backpacking Stoves by Ron Blackwood


Backpacking Stoves

Ninpo Library November 1995

Ron Blackwood

Basic Considerations: Before purchasing any stove, first decide how it will be
used. If you are a backpacker, you should be very concerned with weight. Every
pound you put in your pack will feel like ten pounds on the trail. If you are
inclined to go to high altitudes (over 10,000 feet) or low temperatures you will
want a stove that works well under those conditions. As we become more
environmentally conscious, we should consider the effects of non-refillable fuel
containers.

Fuel: Before deciding on the stove that's right for you, you should look at the
types of fuel that are available in your area. There are three types of fuel
available: White Gas; Pressurized Gas (Propane or Butane); and Kerosene.

White Gas is by far the hottest burning fuel and is available at most outdoor
equipment stores. It burns hot and efficiently in cold weather and at high
altitudes. Additionally it is environmentally more sound than pressurized fuel
in canisters that cannot be refilled.

Propane/Butane is easier to use since you don't have to pump (pressurize) the
stove to get it started. It's lightweight and there is no fuel to handle.

Kerosene is the cheapest, most common fuel around. It doesn't burn as hot as
white gas or propane/butane, so cooking time is increased. Kerosene has a very
disagreeable odor when it burns. It also burns dirtier, so you will be cleaning
the stove more frequently

Stoves: Generally stoves fall into one of two categories. The pressurized gas
cans are usually twist and light, where you twist the canister onto the stove,
turn on the gas and light the burner in accordance with the manufacturer'
instructions. White gas and Kerosene stoves usually require a bit of pumping to
build up pressure in the fuel tank. These stoves seem to be more reliable in
cold temperatures as well as being a better choice environmentally (no empty
canister to discard).

Pump Stoves: MSR WhisperLite: White Gas - This is one of the best stoves around
and is my personal favorite. It features a separate fuel tank that allows you to
isolate the burner with a windscreen for greater fuel efficiency and a hotter-
burning stove. Its low center of gravity provides a stable base for your cooking
pot. Easy to prime, light and quiet, the WhisperLite has a reputation for being
one of the easiest stoves to repair in the field. (12 oz. without fuel) Cost:
$49.

MSR WhisperLite Internationale: Same as above but this stove will also burn
White Gas, commercial grade jet fuel or kerosene. (12 oz without fuel) Cost $57.

MSR XGKII: Same features as above but will burn White Gas, kerosene, diesel or
gasoline. It was designed for high altitudes and sub-zero conditions. (14 oz
without fuel) Cost $80.

Optimus Climber 123: White Gas - This stove is also very reliable. The fuel tank
is very small and it is prudent to carry additional fuel. Use an eyedropper for
priming or purchase the optional pump. (19.5 oz without fuel) Cost $75.
Pressurized Canister Stoves: EPIgas: Propane/Butane Mix - This mixed gas stove
ensures high performance at altitude and low temperatures. The canisters come in
different sizes and are interchangeable between stove models. The Micro stove is
very light (11 oz with canister) Cost $37 and the backpacking stove with
windscreen weights only 20 oz with canister. Cost $34.

Gaz Bluet: Propane or Butane - The multi-use model 206 stove weighs 16.7 oz with
canister. Cost $32. The high performance 470 weighs 30 oz with canister. Cost
$34. The Ultra S470 features Piezo automatic ignition for fast starts. It weighs
31 oz with canister. Cost $43.

Coleman Peak 1 Multi-Fuel: White Gas, Coleman fuel or kerosene. This stove
pressurizes well, using the Coleman classic pump system and has one of the
shortest pre-heating times of any white gas stove. It requires no priming and is
self-cleaning. 27.5 oz with fuel. Cost $79

I hope that the foregoing has helped you decide the type of stove that is best
for you. If you need any advice or counsel, please feel free to contact me.

Ron Blackwood is a Shidoshi teaching in Irvine, CA. He is an avid shooter, SCUBA
diver, backpacker & rock climber. He can be reached at (714) 559-1766 or by E-
mail at OHOKO@AOL.COM .

Tuesday, January 1, 2013

How to Breath Properly to Release Stress in a Emergency


     Any other tips on survival send them up to:
      Richard@io.org

               HOW TO BREATH PROPERLY:

          TO REDUCE STRESS & INCREASE ENERGY!

It sounds strange but we have to learn to breath properly.
Meaning that one  must Exhale Completely; if one wants to use its
Maximum Strength. A breathing control is aimed towards our ways
to Exhale and Not about inhaling.

One rebuilds his strength much better by Exhaling properly than
by trying to force his air intake.

If you do ANY HARD WORK, or walk fast or you are digging
your OUTPUT INCREASES by 50%

If you apply yourself by SLOWLY!!! EXHALING by pushing  All the
air Out of your lungs. Opera singers, swimmers and runners know
this t"Rick".

For example if you get into a cold shower, you have the tendency
to breath faster and to tense your muscles which only aggravates
your torture.

If on the other hand you try to exhale slowly and regularly you
will be much surprised to notice the Little effect that this cold
water has upon you.

               6 DEEP EXHALATIONS!

This is because a Slow Exhalation helps your body to adapt itself
to this change.

               STRESS CONTROL & BREATHING:

A attentive control on your respiration & especially of your
timing contributes to your stress control in any moments of
Tension, Stress or constraint.  Most of us breath only 1/2 way.

We breath incorrectly since we don't have much choice but where
we make the mistake is; when we do not exhale properly. Meaning;
that we do not do it - Deeply Enough -.

Thus we often sigh which is a sign warning us of a Need for a
Deep Exhalation! AHHH! A sigh is a natural mean used by our body
to exhale completely; once we have OOOPSS neglected to do so
under STRESS.

Just remember in your past when there was a Deep Stress & after
that moment was over you felt the dear need for a full
exhalation. AHHH!!! MMM!!!

So one must learn to sigh methodically. Any blockage brought to
your breathing system provokes deep pains! So any amelioration
will be beneficial to your body & mind.

The more one exhale air the more one is able to inhale. So the
increasing of your capacity is the goal of any respiratory
discipline.

To take a conscious hold of your exhalation is the # 1 factor.
What we must strive for is to make it a habit.

               BREATHING BEFORE ANY TASK!

Exhale Deeply Before undertaking Any Task. You will thus
facilitate the climbing of long stairs. Exercise yourself to
breath IN during 2 steps, &  to exhale during the next 2 steps. 2
IN & 2 OUT DEEPLY!

But you MUST Exhale Completely BEFORE climbing the First step!

               BREATHING TO FIGHT COLD!:

6 DEEP EXHALATIONS will also SUSTAIN and INCREASE your RESISTANCE
when you will have to fight against a  "Deep 6!" Winter Wind!

In any Harsh or Boring circumstances where STRESS puts a grip on
you; Exhale Slowly thus you will Recharge your Nervous System.
HUMMM! AHHH!

               BREATHING CONTROL EXERCISES:

To help you along in this new technique, try reading out loud is
a good exercise. Take an article and read on 1 breath as much as
you can without effort. Do this a dozen time the first day. Count
the words and start over the next day, this way you can measure
your improvement.

Another exercise is to count. Sit down comfortably, your back
straight, inhale slowly and regularly counting to 4, pause for 1
second, then exhale till you reach 12, the next time; inhale till
5 and exhale till 15.

Keep it up this way; and measure your progress. Once you have
reached 21 you will notice that the fact of humming a song will
help you Enormously in limiting the quantity of air you exhale.

These exercises will bring MUCH GOOD to your OVERALL WELL BEING
and will change many of your regular habits. A conscious
breathing also brings a conscious acting or behaving.

You will notice that it is impossible to slump in a couch and
still breath effectively. All one has to do is to get his
shoulder blades as close together as possible, to feel your lungs
getting to work at their best.
After a while these exercises will become second nature for an
overall better well being.

It could even help you cutting down on smoking by reducing the
stress overall! Just remember: " DEEP 6 "

1 MAIN LAW OF SURVIVAL:

     ONE OF THE LAW OF TRAVEL & SURVIVAL IS THIS:

THE MORE YOU TRY TO UNDERSTAND AN ENVIRONMENT AND THE LESS
YOU TRY TO FIGHT IT, THE KINDER IT WILL BE TO YOU.

PSYCHOLOGY OF SURVIVAL:

While it is true and vital that energy must be conserved.
It is equally important that the mind must BE KEPT BUSY.

ENDURANCE IS NOT ENOUGH:

This has been proven over & over again. 1 needs training! 1 must
know what to do! 1 must equip himself, mentally and physically.
If you Want to survive; you most likely will! If not! Then you
wont!

CONSERVATION OF ENERGY:

Conservation of energy is ESSENTIAL to SURVIVAL under ANY
primitive conditions.


How to Breath Properly to Release Stress in a Emergency


     Any other tips on survival send them up to:
      Richard@io.org

               HOW TO BREATH PROPERLY:

          TO REDUCE STRESS & INCREASE ENERGY!

It sounds strange but we have to learn to breath properly.
Meaning that one  must Exhale Completely; if one wants to use its
Maximum Strength. A breathing control is aimed towards our ways
to Exhale and Not about inhaling.

One rebuilds his strength much better by Exhaling properly than
by trying to force his air intake.

If you do ANY HARD WORK, or walk fast or you are digging
your OUTPUT INCREASES by 50%

If you apply yourself by SLOWLY!!! EXHALING by pushing  All the
air Out of your lungs. Opera singers, swimmers and runners know
this t"Rick".

For example if you get into a cold shower, you have the tendency
to breath faster and to tense your muscles which only aggravates
your torture.

If on the other hand you try to exhale slowly and regularly you
will be much surprised to notice the Little effect that this cold
water has upon you.

               6 DEEP EXHALATIONS!

This is because a Slow Exhalation helps your body to adapt itself
to this change.

               STRESS CONTROL & BREATHING:

A attentive control on your respiration & especially of your
timing contributes to your stress control in any moments of
Tension, Stress or constraint.  Most of us breath only 1/2 way.

We breath incorrectly since we don't have much choice but where
we make the mistake is; when we do not exhale properly. Meaning;
that we do not do it - Deeply Enough -.

Thus we often sigh which is a sign warning us of a Need for a
Deep Exhalation! AHHH! A sigh is a natural mean used by our body
to exhale completely; once we have OOOPSS neglected to do so
under STRESS.

Just remember in your past when there was a Deep Stress & after
that moment was over you felt the dear need for a full
exhalation. AHHH!!! MMM!!!

So one must learn to sigh methodically. Any blockage brought to
your breathing system provokes deep pains! So any amelioration
will be beneficial to your body & mind.

The more one exhale air the more one is able to inhale. So the
increasing of your capacity is the goal of any respiratory
discipline.

To take a conscious hold of your exhalation is the # 1 factor.
What we must strive for is to make it a habit.

               BREATHING BEFORE ANY TASK!

Exhale Deeply Before undertaking Any Task. You will thus
facilitate the climbing of long stairs. Exercise yourself to
breath IN during 2 steps, &  to exhale during the next 2 steps. 2
IN & 2 OUT DEEPLY!

But you MUST Exhale Completely BEFORE climbing the First step!

               BREATHING TO FIGHT COLD!:

6 DEEP EXHALATIONS will also SUSTAIN and INCREASE your RESISTANCE
when you will have to fight against a  "Deep 6!" Winter Wind!

In any Harsh or Boring circumstances where STRESS puts a grip on
you; Exhale Slowly thus you will Recharge your Nervous System.
HUMMM! AHHH!

               BREATHING CONTROL EXERCISES:

To help you along in this new technique, try reading out loud is
a good exercise. Take an article and read on 1 breath as much as
you can without effort. Do this a dozen time the first day. Count
the words and start over the next day, this way you can measure
your improvement.

Another exercise is to count. Sit down comfortably, your back
straight, inhale slowly and regularly counting to 4, pause for 1
second, then exhale till you reach 12, the next time; inhale till
5 and exhale till 15.

Keep it up this way; and measure your progress. Once you have
reached 21 you will notice that the fact of humming a song will
help you Enormously in limiting the quantity of air you exhale.

These exercises will bring MUCH GOOD to your OVERALL WELL BEING
and will change many of your regular habits. A conscious
breathing also brings a conscious acting or behaving.

You will notice that it is impossible to slump in a couch and
still breath effectively. All one has to do is to get his
shoulder blades as close together as possible, to feel your lungs
getting to work at their best.
After a while these exercises will become second nature for an
overall better well being.

It could even help you cutting down on smoking by reducing the
stress overall! Just remember: " DEEP 6 "

1 MAIN LAW OF SURVIVAL:

     ONE OF THE LAW OF TRAVEL & SURVIVAL IS THIS:

THE MORE YOU TRY TO UNDERSTAND AN ENVIRONMENT AND THE LESS
YOU TRY TO FIGHT IT, THE KINDER IT WILL BE TO YOU.

PSYCHOLOGY OF SURVIVAL:

While it is true and vital that energy must be conserved.
It is equally important that the mind must BE KEPT BUSY.

ENDURANCE IS NOT ENOUGH:

This has been proven over & over again. 1 needs training! 1 must
know what to do! 1 must equip himself, mentally and physically.
If you Want to survive; you most likely will! If not! Then you
wont!

CONSERVATION OF ENERGY:

Conservation of energy is ESSENTIAL to SURVIVAL under ANY
primitive conditions.